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A rapid development of new wastewater treatment plants with biological treatment started in the mid-1950s, and this was followed by the implementation of chemical phosphorus removal in the 1970s. Extended nitrogen removal was introduced in many plants in the 1990s and these plants show a clear distribution pattern in terms of geography and size.

According to Swedish regulations, wastewater discharged from plants larger than 10 000 person equivalents (pe) to coastal areas south of a line from the Norwegian border on the west coast to the municipality of Norrtalje on the east coast should undergo extended nitrogen removal. There is no such requirement for plants north of this line (Swedish EPA, 1994). Figure 1 shows the geographical distribution of nitrogen removal requirements in Sweden. Historically, new treatment demands have been solved at existing plants rather than through the construction of new refined ones. This is mainly due to the economic value of all the assets associated with the wastewater mtsu edu lastdata order xanax treatment system and the cost of rebuilding them.

Tailored solutions have therefore been required for the implementation of new treatment technologies at existing plants. Accordingly, Swedish wastewater treatment comprises a large spectrum of wastewater treatment technologies and process configurations.

Micropollutants in the wastewater system Wastewater of both domestic and industrial origin is treated at Swedish wastewater treatment plants. Discharge of information mtsu edu lastdata order xanax prescribing xanax industrial wastewater to the sewer requires approval by the body responsible for the wastewater treatment, which therefore can require that industrial chemicals are managed at the source instead of at the plant. For micropollutants associated with domestic wastewater, the sources are more diffuse and the reduction is dependent on the plant. In Sweden, most of the domestic wastewater generated in urban areas is transported to wastewater treatment plants. Wastewater treatment plants therefore have unique potential to serve as a barrier for environmentally hazardous micropollutants of diffuse origin. Figure 2 shows the three main ways for removal of micropollutants at wastewater treatment plants: sorption to particulate mtsu edu lastdata order xanax matter, biological degradation/transformation and evaporation.

The ability of wastewater treatment plants to remove micropollutants is therefore affected by the physical, chemical and biological properties of the substance as well as by the biochemical processes at the plant, the plant configuration and the operation of the different treatment processes. Figure 3 shows the main ways by which micropollutants are removed at a wastewater treatment plant with conventional activated sludge treatment. Evaporation II X -: Biodegradation/transformation mtsu edu lastdata order xanax A Sorption to particulate matter Figure 2. The three main ways for removal of micropollutants at wastewater treatment plants. Screen Grit Pre- Aeration Sedimentation Chamber sedimentation 20 min 3 hours 2 hours 3 hours >- Transportation to sludge treatment 90% BOD > 90% P > 90% N ~ 25% Figure 4. Typical process schemes for activated sludge treatment plants of various geographical origin and size (Northern plants and Southern plants 10 000 pe below). The tables show the expected removal of suspended solids (SS) and organic matter as BOD together with reduction of phosphorus and nitrogen if the biological treatment is combined with chemical precipitation of phosphorus. Southern plants >10 000 pe SS > 90% BOD > 90% P > 95% N > 70% required for the biological treatment are very different for these two plant types.

The longer retention time is required to achieve attleboroschools com new tramadol cheap tramadol full nitrification and denitrification in the activated sludge process. The retention time of the biological treatment is also important to the reduction of other substances, since it represents the time over which biodegradation can occur.

In terms of the rate of biodegradation of micropollutants, the sludge age, which is the average time bacteria are maintained within the biological treatment, has been shown to be important. An increased sludge age promotes more slow-growing bacteria species, which increases the diversity of the bacteria community and thereby the probability that some bacteria will be able to degrade a specific substance. Activated sludge processes designed solely for removal of organic substances are operated with a short sludge age, while higher sludge ages are required for nitrogen removal.

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