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Tailored solutions have therefore been required for the implementation of new treatment technologies at existing plants. Accordingly, Swedish wastewater treatment comprises a large spectrum of wastewater treatment technologies and process configurations.

Micropollutants in the wastewater system Wastewater of both domestic and industrial origin is treated at Swedish wastewater treatment plants.

Discharge of industrial wastewater to the sewer requires approval by the body responsible for the wastewater treatment, which therefore can require apap hydrocodone 5 500 that industrial chemicals are managed at the source instead of at the plant. For can you take adderall with viagra micropollutants associated with domestic wastewater, the sources are more diffuse and the reduction is dependent on the 51 fig buy tramadol buy cheap clonazepam clonidine 0.730510 plant.

In Sweden, most of the domestic wastewater generated in urban areas is transported to wastewater treatment plants. Wastewater treatment plants therefore have unique potential to serve as a barrier for environmentally hazardous micropollutants of diffuse origin. Figure 2 shows the three main ways for removal of micropollutants at wastewater treatment plants: sorption to particulate matter, biological degradation/transformation and evaporation. The ability of wastewater treatment plants to remove micropollutants is therefore affected by the physical, chemical and biological hydrocodone bitartrate brand name singulair properties of the substance as well as by the biochemical processes at the plant, the plant configuration and the operation of the different treatment processes. Figure 3 shows the main ways by which micropollutants are removed at a wastewater treatment plant with conventional activated sludge treatment. Evaporation II X -: Biodegradation/transformation A Sorption to particulate matter Figure 2. The three main ways for removal of micropollutants at wastewater treatment plants. Screen Grit Pre- Aeration Sedimentation Chamber sedimentation 20 min 3 hours 2 hours 3 hours >- Transportation to sludge treatment 90% BOD > 90% P > 90% N ~ 25% Figure 4. Typical process schemes for activated sludge treatment plants of various geographical origin and size (Northern plants and Southern plants 10 000 pe below).

The tables show the expected removal of suspended solids (SS) and organic matter as BOD together with reduction of phosphorus and nitrogen if the biological treatment is combined with chemical precipitation of phosphorus. Southern plants >10 000 pe SS > 90% BOD > 90% P > 95% N > 70% required for the biological treatment are very different for these two plant types. The longer retention time is required to achieve full nitrification fig buy tramadol buy cheap and denitrification in the activated sludge process.

The retention time of the biological treatment is also important to the reduction of other substances, since it represents the time over which biodegradation brain com site tramadol can occur. In terms of the rate of biodegradation of micropollutants, the sludge age, which is the average time bacteria are maintained within the biological treatment, has been shown to be important. An increased sludge age promotes more slow-growing bacteria species, which increases the diversity of the bacteria community and thereby the probability that some bacteria will be able to degrade fig buy tramadol buy cheap a specific substance. Activated sludge processes designed solely for removal of organic substances are operated with a short sludge age, while higher sludge ages are required for nitrogen removal. The higher sludge age is required by some slow-growing bacteria species necessary for the nitrogen removal process, and the sludge age required by these bacteria seems to be critical for the removal of some micropollutants. The activated sludge process ends with a clarifier, from which sludge rich in bacteria is either fig buy tramadol buy cheap recirculated or withdrawn as excess sludge.



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