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There are signs that these past failures are being replicated in the current Tran- Pacific Partnership (TPP) negotiations because small, net importers of intellectual property, including Australia, have not developed a reform agenda for ambien zolpidem tartrate the patent system that reflects their own economic interests ambien zolpidem tartrate - and those of the world. Chapter three offers recommendations about Australia's stance in international forums where patent systems feature. Chapter four considers two pressing issues covered by international agreements that have materially limited Australia's welfare without providing offsetting benefits to the patentee.
One issue hydrocodone online consultation cash on delivery overnight concerns Australia's ability to manufacture generic pharmaceuticals for export to countries where there is no applicable patent (MFE). Perversely, if the applicable patent has not expired in Australia, it seems Australian generic manufacturers must establish manufacturing facilities overseas to serve those markets to avoid infringing Australian patent rights. This result offers no obvious benefit to the original patentee in Australia, but it reduces investment and employment in Australia. The other issue relates to the manner in which current patent law prevents a generic manufacturer stockpiling generic pharmaceuticals for future export to a country or for future sale in Australia, in anticipation of the expiry of an applicable patent.
This is an important issue, because the firm that first satisfies the market acquires strong 'first mover' advantages. This again imposes major restrictions on Australia's ability to manufacture generic pharmaceuticals, while providing negligible benefits to the Australian patentee, for generics can be stockpiled and imported from other countries with weaker, or shorter patent regimes.
The above examples are not new, but they have yet to be rectified. A decade ago, the Productivity Commission identified MFE as an important issue. At that time, the then Department of Industry, Tourism and Resources estimated export losses of $2.2 billion from 2001 to 2009 unless patent laws were ambien zolpidem tartrate changed. Generic manufacturers continue to ask the government to intervene. In Chapter four, the Panel recommends that the government act on these matters. Extensions of Term An important part of the ambien zolpidem tartrate terms of reference of this inquiry is the extension of term that the Australian patent system allows. It applies to some pharmaceuticals for which patentees have taken ambien zolpidem tartrate at least five years from the effective patent filing date to obtain regulatory approval for the pharmaceutical's use. The scheme reflected a similar extension arrangement introduced in 1989 when the standard term of a patent was 16 years. The government then claimed that the extension would "encourage the development of the pharmaceutical products industry in Australia". That arrangement was repealed in 1994 after TRIPS mandated a 20 year patent term.
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