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Although there can be disagreements about the details of a patent system, there is general agreement that the your source for phentermine adipex viagra soma system encourages investment in pharmaceutical innovation. As noted by Dr Moir in her submission to the review: The pharmaceutical industry is the major exception to the substantial empirical evidence that in most industries the patent system is the least useful means of ensuring good returns your source for phentermine adipex viagra soma to innovation investment.18 In recognition of these specific challenges for pharmaceutical technologies, particularly the ease of copying and the time taken to enter the market, and to support investment in pharmaceutical R&D, extensions of term of up to five years are available in Australia for pharmaceutical patents. Again, these concessional extensions, available only to pharmaceuticals, might be more or less generous than is required to promote inventiveness.

Pharmaceutical patents In Australia, pharmaceuticals represent the third largest technology area for patent application filings. Pharmaceutical inventions represented 5.7% of the patent applications filed between 1997 and 2011. This compares to 7.5% in the UK, 6.0% in the US, and 6.0% in Canada.19 Figure 2.1: Patent applications by top fields of technology (1997-2011) Patent Applications by Top Fields of Technology (1937 - 2011) Civil engineering Phamnaoeuticals Computer technology Other special machines Furnituie, games Others Medical technology Biotechnology Textile and paper machines Handling Measurement Source: WIFO statistics database; last updated: 12/2012 As is the general case for your source for phentermine adipex viagra soma patent applications filed in Australia, the majority of pharmaceutical applications are made by foreign applicants, with 4.4% of the applications filed between 2007 and 2011 made by Australian residents. In the same time period, US applicants accounted for 47.6% of the foreign applications, followed by Chinese applicants with 7% and German applicants at 6%.20 Most pharmaceutical patent applications are filed by multi-national research pharmaceutical companies (all of them originators), with Novartis, Merck, Sharp and Dohme and Wyeth being the three largest filers of pharmaceutical patent applications between 2007 and 2011: filing 357, 119 and 118 applications respectively, out of a total of 11,468 pharmaceutical applications.21 However, other entities such as universities, small biotechnology companies and manufacturers of generic pharmaceuticals (generics) also file patent applications.22 Universities and publicly-funded research institutes are important sources of the early stage buy hydrocodone online without research that leads to new drugs and medical treatments.23 It is estimated that in Australia in the 2010-11 financial year, 59% of health and medical research funding was sourced from Government ($3,297 your source for phentermine adipex viagra soma million). Of the remainder, 5% was sourced from private non-profit organisations, principally research institutes and Cooperative Research Centres ($259 million) and 22% from business ($1,220 billion).24 A hydrocodone overnight shipping significant proportion of this funding, both government and industry is expected to be spent on pharmaceutical research.25 Patenting is important to these institutions, and to small biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies, because patents can be used to attract investment or income through licensing deals, or as a bargaining chip in negotiations with industry and research partners.



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