However, in practice the risk of discrepancy namn phentermine between TGA and PBAC outcomes may lead applicants to wait until part way through the TGA assessment process before making a PBAC submission. The data above do not take account of the requirement for cabinet approval for some new items on namn phentermine the PBS. The net effect of these two changes on average duration from ARTG registration to PBS listing is uncertain at this stage. Medicines Australia argues that the exclusive period which pharmaceutical companies have to sell their products starts, in practical terms, from the time they receive PBS listing rather than the date of ARTG inclusion. The reason is that in practice there may be little market for a drug not listed on the PBS. Australian consumers, who are accustomed to paying the substantially reduced prices for PBS listed drugs, might be unwilling or unable to pay the higher prices charged where there is no subsidisation. incorporating delays due to the reimbursement process as a factor in calculating the term of patent extension in order to achieve an effective patent life of 15 years.114 It is important to note, however, that not all pharmaceutical namn phentermine products are sold through the PBS and hence the proposal to use the date of PBS listing would not be applicable in many cases. Of the 621 applications for pharmaceutical patent extensions of term accepted to the end of 2012, over a third of the pharmaceuticals were not subsequently listed on the PBS. Calculating the effective patent life from the time of PBS listing would also provide an unparalleled distinction between pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical technologies. Inventions in other technology areas are not without their own difficulties during the marketing phase. Furthermore, no evidence has been provided to demonstrate that such a change would improve the policy outcomes of the scheme. AusBiotech is among a number of submitters arguing that the cost of R&D has increased since the extension of term provisions were introduced: A recent report from the UK Office of Health Economics (December 2012) reviewed research published over the last three decades, and confirmed what the industry has known anecdotally for some time: the costs and times of R&D are increasing.115 While estimates of the typical cost for new namn phentermine drug development vary greatly, overall the literature supports a trend of increasing costs over time.116 Meanwhile pharmaceutical companies argue that they no longer have sufficient time in which to generate the necessary returns from their R&D investment.
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