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However, if adjustments to current standard tests (e.g. additional high hydrocodone endpoints and/or refined test criteria) could increase the biological relevance for testing pharmaceuticals, a potential way forward could be that the standardisation organisations initiate additional validation and expert comments rounds, to standardise the proposed adjustments. Still, such minor adjustments would likely not improve current standard tests to the extent that the specific biological effects of most pharmaceuticals are covered by the tests. Hence, in our view, an important way forward is to make increased use of non-standard test data to ensure a scientifically well founded environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals.

To enable use of non-standard tests in risk assessments two things are needed: A legislation that can cope with non-standard tests in a systematic and predictable way, and that non-standard tests are reported in a transparent and comprehensive way, much like required when using the standard test methods. References Breitholtz M, Lundstrom E, Dahl U, Forbes V.

Improving the value of standard toxicity test data in alternative to hydrocodone REACH. In Regulating Chemical Risk: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on European and Global Challenges.

Data quality evaluation of toxicological studies used to deriv e ecotoxicological benchmarks. Human and ecological risk assessment: An international Journal, 6(5), 747-765.

Committee for medicinal products for human use (CHMP). Guideline on the environmental risk assessment of medicinal products for human use. European Commission Technical Guidance Document in Support of Commission Directive 93/67/EEC on Risk Assessment for New Notified Substances and Commission Regulation (EC). No 1488/94 on Risk Assessment for Existing phentermine roll viagra xanax Substances, Part II. it/home.php?CONTENU=/Technical-Guidance-Document/sommaire.php Hobbs DA, Warne M, Markich, SJ. Evaluation of criteria used to assess the quality of aquatic toxicity data. Integrated environmental assessment and management, 1 (3): 174-180. A systematic approach for evaluating the quality of experimental toxicological hydrocodone m367 picture and exotoxicological data. Pharmaceuticals in the Environment - Sources, Fate, Effects alternative to hydrocodone and Risks.

Swedish Medical Products Agency (Lakemedelsverket) 2009. Redovisning av regeringsuppdrag gdllande mojligheten att skdrpa miljokrav vid tillverkning av ldkemedel och aktiv substans. Available at http://www.lakemedelsverket.se Van Leeuwen CJT, Vermeire TG. Evaluation of the accuracy and consistency of the Swedish Environmental Classification and Information System for pharmaceuticals. Science of the Total Environment acetaminophen com hcl par site tramadol 408:2327-2339 Available data about the ecotoxicity of pharmaceuticals have been collected in a database namned WikiPharma. The aim of WikiPharma is to provide a new xanax pie bars comprehensive and easily accessible source for ecotoxicological data for pharmaceuticals and it is publicly available at no cost at www.wikipharma.org. The concentration of such data in one single place is convenient alternative to hydrocodone when assessing environmental risks of pharmaceutical ingredients, and for identifying data gaps and research needs in this area. The database is constructed as a ''wiki" to enable users to propose data to be added. Data that have either been published in the open scientific literature or that have been sufficiently peer-reviewed and made publicly available by other means can be included. The WikiPharma was developed within the MistraPharma research programme and in this chapter the structure, functions and contents of WikiPharma are introduced.

See also Molander et al., (2009) for more detailed information. Scope of the database WikiPharma was compiled with the intention to include all available ecotoxicity data for active pharmaceutical ingredients (denoted APIs). The ecotoxicity alternative to hydrocodone data were systematically searched for in relevant scientific databases and using the Google Scholar search tool. Furthermore, the reference lists of the retrieved publications, including review articles, were searched for information about additional references, and data from relevant books were extracted.



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