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three times daily UVA ultraviolet irradiation, long wavelengths UVB ultraviolet irradiation, medium wavelengths w/v weight in volume w/w weight in weight Appendix D Performance statistics The tests were undertaken by a sample of final-year pharmacy students following a five-year course, which included the preregistration period. The percentage of students answering a question incorrectly is indicated for each test.

Questions that were answered correctly by all students are not listed. Test 1 (n = 36) Question number Students answering incorrectly (%) 1 21 2 22 3 28 4 6 6 25 7 25 8 22 10 11 11 28 13 14 14 3 15 53 16 31 17 3 18 14 19 24 21 14 22 3 23 22 25 3 26 3 Question number 6 17 6 3 8 6 3 11 6 3 19 6 44 35 15 74 65 8 11 39 61 33 6 64 69 59 19 8 3 6 19 14 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 2739 41 44 45 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 5061 62 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 Students answering incorrectly (%) Question number 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 7181 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 83100 8 19 44 22 19 8 8 11 11 17 3 11 25 28 31 72 8 8 3 14 3 39 11 17 11 31 44 3 22 11 Students answering incorrectly (%) Question number 2 3 4 5 6 7 39 10 11 12 14 15 16 17 1419 21 23 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 2539 39 39 14 4 54 7 39 18 7 4 21 4 71 75 32 18 7 21 14 32 14 18 7 4 68 4 7 7 32 39 Students answering incorrectly (%) Question number 40 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 4961 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 18 82 82 11 82 43 11 4 36 14 11 18 18 18 7 36 14 36 89 3846 21 3939 14 7 21 11 32 4 54 25 Test 2 (n = 28) (continued) Question number 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 83100 41 38 68 53 57 61 11 86 36 4 11 59 85 3888 4 68 3961 7 32 Test 3 (n = 32) Question number Students answering incorrectly (%) 1 6 2 3 4 34 5 3 Students answering incorrectly (%) Question number 6 7 9 11 12 14 15 17 18 19 1721 22 23 9 buy tramadol online 2326 27 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 6 3 65 6 3 13 3 47 13 12 18 38 24 53 9 22 13 9 34 3 53 29 243 56 16 28 2528 6 25 6 13 Test 3 (n = 32) (continued) Question number 19 3 13 41 9 28 19 22 31 6 47 6 6 3 41 13 38 19 28 2444 28 31 3 9 75 9 6 9 56 2553 9 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 4561 62 63 65 66 67 68 69 6579 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 Students answering incorrectly (%) Question number 79 7981 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 8399 100 3 25 62 50 21 41 68 62 56 44 6 13 25 62 50 32 3 19 6 Test 4 (n = 26) Question number Students answering incorrectly (%) 1 76 2 71 3 35 4 35 5 46 6 8 Question number 12 8 8 8 8 4 12 4 19 8 50 31 35 38 31 31 15 23 4 12 27 23 38 12 31 27 23 35 19 62 81 19 7 79 10 11 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 1521 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Students answering incorrectly (%) Question number 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 4061 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 42 62 27 23 4 8 27 62 12 77 31 35 69 50 15 46 15 8 62 31 54 42 19 50 69 81 62 62 35 23 46 62 Students answering incorrectly (%) Question number 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 7281 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 50 58 50 50 54 54 62 38 46 46 69 50 69 4 15 12 15 15 38 31 19 35 38 54 54 15 4 4 Students answering incorrectly (%) Question number 1 2 3 36 7 79 10 11 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1321 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 8 17 69 11 17 17 3 61 14 8 246 176 3 6 33 18 2531 72 22 3 36 9 14 31 64 14 Test 5 (n = 36) (continued) Question number 8 25 14 11 42 42 3 28 6 3 14 3 6 22 3 6 11 33 6 19 58 64 8 8 97 47 3 47 39 47 92 14 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 4461 62 63 64 65 66 Students answering incorrectly (%) Question number 67 68 69 70 71 73 74 75 76 77 7380 81 82 83 84 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 96 97 98 96100 19 47 6 3 22 22 6 78 25 83 17 78 11 50 6 61 19 3 11 24 2412 81 44 8 2517 56 64 Students answering incorrectly (%) Question number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 39 10 11 12 13 14 15 1318 injecting xanax 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 2329 31 32 33 7 50 29 43 43 43 18 4 50 14 50 11 29 7 14 38 4 11 18 18 43 61 14 7 7 12 4 93 11 18 Students answering incorrectly (%) Question number 34 35 3438 42 43 45 46 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 4861 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 36 11 14 21 14 21 4 32 4 36 46 14 14 4 82 11 11 21 61 18 18 7 82 32 29 50 46 7 21 25 11 18 Students answering incorrectly (%) Question number 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 7281 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 83100 50 4 21 79 12 86 43 96 57 68 14 7 89 26 53 29 88 26 38 11 29 25 11 11 56 47 68 74 62 Students answering incorrectly (%) Question number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 310 11 12 13 1317 22 23 25 27 29 30 32 33 34 36 37 38 42 43 44 45 31 9 25 3 19 6 6 13 13 19 3 59 41 66 9 13 13 3 316 16 38 43 22 38 78 10 22 22 Test 7 (n = 32) (continued) Question number 16 10 31 3 25 3 13 3 59 63 66 10 3 6 28 44 41 13 31 44 9 44 19 31 22 50 3 25 25 3 69 31 46 4449 54 55 56 5461 62 63 64 65 66 67 6369 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 6681 82 83 85 8587 Students answering incorrectly (%) Question number 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 89100 22 28 53 66 31 28 3 3 59 9 38 31 13 Test 8 (n = 26) 1 12 2 38 4 12 6 4 7 50 8 27 9 27 10 58 11 50 12 8 13 8 Question number Students answering incorrectly ( Question number 19 69 23 8 12 23 8 12 4 19 12 58 12 31 42 58 46 54 96 73 65 62 77 73 65 23 65 23 23 54 77 31 14 15 16 17 1419 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 Students answering incorrectly (%) Question number 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 4761 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 78 79 31 38 27 46 62 23 31 58 31 38 65 35 50 62 73 19 85 31 54 58 62 12 38 23 12 46 15 50 62 58 77 62 Test 8 (n = 26) (continued) Question number 80 81 83 8386 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 87100 Students answering incorrectly (%) 4 27 27 35 35 19 4 19 73 65 50 77 58 35 19 92 92 81 54 Proprietary names index Actifed 4, 28, 46, 68 Actifed Compound Linctus 47, 69 Actonel 146, 165 Adalat 13, 35, 90, 112 Aldactone 10-11, 33 Alka-Seltzer 45, 67 Alupent 11, 33 Amoxil 90, 112 Anadin Extra 45, 53, 67, 74 Arthrotec 57, 79 Aspro 45, 67 Atarax 47, 69 Augmentin 47, 70, 149, 171 Avandia 145, 164 Avomine 6, 29 Bactroban 106, 129 Beecham's Hot Lemon and Honey 47, 69 Betadine 49, 71 Betnovate 104, 126 Bezalip 136, 153 Bonviva 145, 165 Buccastem 62, 84 Buscopan 51, 73, 106, 128-9 Buspar 8, 31 Byetta 11, 33 Canesten 49, 71, 140, 159 Canesten HC 3, 8, 27, 31, 90, 112 Cardura 10-11, 33 Cerumol 53 Cilest 8, 31, 102, 124, 241, 259 Ciproxin 141, 149, 159, 170-1 Circadin 54, 76 Cirrus 46, 68 Clarinase 46, 68 Clarityn 8, 23, 31, 43, 46, 68 Colofac 54, 76 Coversyl 141, 159 Cozaar 10-11, 33 Cytotec 10, 32 Daktacort 3, 22-3, 27, 42-3, 97, 118 Daktarin 11-12, 51, 72, 148, 9 buy tramadol online 170 see also Gyno-Daktarin Dalacin 150, 172 Day Nurse 4, 28 Deltacortril 64, 66, 87 Diamox 10, 32, 33 Didronel PMO 251 Difflam 11-12, 33, 53 Dioralyte 307 Drapolene 90, 112 Dulco-lax 13, 34, 57, 79, 89, 90, 95, 111, 112, 116 Duphalac 103, 125 E45 102, 124 Elidel 106, 128 Emadine 8, 31 Engerix B 9-10, 32 Erythroped 24, 44 Eurax 8, 19, 31, 41 Exelon 138, 155-6 Ezetrol 136, 153 Feldene 19, 41 Flagyl 49, 70, 149, 171 Flixonase 294 Flixotide 294 Fluarix 9-10, 32 Fucicort 3, 27 Fucidin H 3, 27 Fybogel 89, 111 Gardasil 7, 30-1 Gyno-Daktarin 49, 71 Havrix 9-10, 32 Heminevrin 8, 31 Ikorel 13, 35 Imodium 13, 35 Inderal 10-11, 33 Indocid 10, 32 Isordil 47, 70 Istin 49, 70 Karvol 11-12, 47, 69 Ketek 24, 44 Klaricid 24, 44, 149, 171 Kwells 6, 29 Lamisil 49, 71, 148, 169 Lantus 147, 168 Largactil 60, 83 Lasilix 48, 70 Lescol 51 Lescol XL 136, 153 Livial 17, 38 Losec 106, 128 Losec MUPS 24, 44 Lucentis 137, 154 Maalox 65 Macrodantin 13, 35 Migril 49, 71 Mobic 5, 29, 54, 76 Molcer 8, 11-12, 31, 34 Motilium 6, 29 Naprosyn 49, 71, 90, 112 Nasonex 8, 31, 140, 159 Natrilix 51, 73 Nexium 11, 33 Nizoral 102, 124, 148, 170 Nootropil 19, 41 Nurofen 23, 43 Nu-Seals 45, 67, 90, 112 Oilatum 102, 124 Optrex 53, 74 Orelox 24, 44 Ortho-Gynest 49, 71 Oruvail 19, 41 Otosporin 3, 27 Otrivine 8, 31, 47, 51, 69, 72 Panoxyl 150, 172 Pevaryl 8, 31 Phenergan 4, 6, 8, 13, 28, 29, 31, 35, 102, 124 Premarin 17, 38 Prevenar 105, 126 Questran 136, 153 Rasilez 138, 156 Rennie 23, 43 Rhinocort Aqua 8, 31, 51, 72, 304, 325 Risperdal 49, 70-1 Roaccutane 150, 172 Rocephin 149, 171 Rotarix 9-10, 32 Rynacrom 11-12, 34 Senokot 89, 111 Serenace 60, 83 Slow-K 95, 116 Sofradex 97, 140, 159 Sporanox 148, 170 Stemetil 101, 122 Stilnoct 8, 31 Stugeron 6, 29 Suboxone 53, 74, 90, 97, 112, 118 Sudafed 8, 31 Sudocrem 90, 112 Syndol 45, 67 Tagamet 47, 70 Tegretol 60, 83, 140, 159 Telfast 46, 68 Tenormin 47, 70, 141, 159 Tildiem 10-11, 33 Twinrix 9-10, 32 Uniflu 4, 28, 239 Utinor 13, 35, 149, 171 Valium 64, 86, 102, 124 Varilrix 97, 118 Vasogen 90, 112 Ventolin 4, 28 Vermox 54, 76, 103, 125 Viagra 70 Voltarol 51, 65, 73, 86, 90, 112, 207, 264 Voltarol Retard 57, 79-80 Xalatan 63, 85 Xenical 21, 42 Xylocaine 9, 32 Xyzal 4, 28, 46, 68 Yasmin 8, 17, 31, 38-9 Zaditen 51, 95, 116 Zantac 13, 35, 47, 70 Zestril 64, 86 Zinnat 10, 32, 149, 171 Zithromax 24, 44, 149, 170 Zocor 136 Zofran 10, 32 Zovirax 148, 170 Generic names index abciximab 145, 163 acarbose 14, 35, 286, 312, 329 acetaminophen 274, 297 acetazolamide 33, 47, 52, 69, 73, 276, 299, 311, 328, 346 acetylsalicylic acid 258, 274, 297 see also aspirin aciclovir 7, 30, 54, 55, 75, 77, 170, 182, 206, 265, 290, 351 adrenaline 46, 68, 138, 140, 155, 158 alcohol 65, 86, 106, 114, 128, 169, 202, 243, 273, 277, 319, 334 alendronic acid 321, 337-8 alfentanil 7, 30 alfuzosin 6, 30, 55, 76-7 alginic acid 266, 291, 347 alimemazine 266, 291 aliskiren 156, 349 allopurinol 130, 146, 166, 188, 210 almond oil 72, 101, 123 alteplase 232, 252 aluminium chloride 184, 207 aluminium hydroxide 227, 277, 347, 348 aluminium salts 235, 249, 255 aluminium oxide 227 amantadine 181, 205 amikacin 222, 245 amiloride 221, 244 amiodarone 99, 120, 147, 169, 226, 248 amitriptyline 179, 203, 225, 232, 248, 252, 276, 283, 299, 303-4 amlopidine 70, 91, 112, 246, 321, 337, 348 amoxicillin 23, 43, 52, 55, 73, 77, 93, 99, 112, 114, 121, 177, 191, 194, 195, 215, 234, 243, 254, 345 ampicillin 93, 114, 186, 194, 227, 230 anastrozole 117 arachis oil 72, 346 aripiprazole 96, 117, 140, 158 arnica 142, 160-1 ascorbic acid 28, 69, 274, 297, 314, 345, 350 aspirin 45, 67, 74, 92, 99, 106, 112, 121, 129, 163, 166, 211, 237, 258, 269, 274, 297, 345, 349 atazanavir 186 atenolol 3, 5, 45, 67, 97-8, 107, 108, 118, 119, 159, 188, 210, 220, 221, 225, 243, 247, 273, 297, 350 atomoxetine 96, 117 atracurium 52, 73 azathioprine 146, 166 azelaic acid 54, 76, 178, 203 azithromycin 44, 170, 222, 245, 351 aztreonam 219, 243 baby oil 72, 123 baclofen 184, 207 BCG vaccine 56, 78 beclometasone 180, 204, 279, 301 bendroflumethiazide 64, 70, 86, 98, 107, 108, 119, 130, 271 benzalkonium chloride 347 benzocaine 93, 114, 182, 206, 248, 272, 296 benzoyl peroxide 172, 178, 203, 261, 287, 349 benzydamine 33, 182, 206, 346 benzylpenicillin see penicillin G betamethasone 27, 126, 235, 255, 294, 324, 331-2, 345, 347 bevacizumab 146, 165-6 bezafibrate 153, 264, 289, 345 bisacodyl 5, 28, 34, 79-80, 111, 112, 116, 224, 246, 347 bleomycin 92, 113 brinzolamide 328 bromocriptine 16, 38, 181, 205, 232, 253 budesonide 31, 62, 72, 85, 182, 206, 234, 254, 306, 349 bumetanide 183, 207, 281 bupivacaine 9, 32 buprenorphine 53, 74, 112, 118, 350 bupropion 145, 164 buspirone 31, 346 caffeine 28, 53, 67, 71, 74, 345, 348, 350 calamine lotion 39, 104, 126, 193, 215, 227, 248, 350 calcipotriol 57, 79, 226, 248, 346 calcitonin 108 calcium carbonate 43, 227, 230, 251, 277, 300, 346, 347, 349 calcium sulphate 223, 245 capecitabine 16, 38 captopril 93 carbamazepine 83, 102, 125, 155, 159, 225, 247, 249, 270, 320, 335-6, 350 carbidopa 205 carbimazole 239, 240, 259, 266, 291 carbocisteine 183, 206, 237, 257 carboplatin 16, 38 carboprost 221, 244 cefaclor 269, 293 cefalexin 149, 171 cefotaxime 41 cefpodoxime 44, 349 ceftriaxone 171, 349 cefuroxime 171, 175, 194, 240, 259, 317, 333, 351 celecoxib 5, 29 cetirizine 68, 190, 212, 263, 288-9, 346 cetrimide 347 chloramphenicol 41, 197, 198, 199, 216, 217, 319, 324, 333, 341 chlorbutanol 69, 348 chlordiazepoxide 252 chlorhexidine 186, 208, 276, 299-300, 308, 326, 346 chloroform water 227, 249 chlorphenamine 140, 158, 183, 207, 266, 291 chlorpromazine 47, 69, 83, 181, 205, 271, 295, 322, 339, 348 chlorpropamide 178, 202, 286 choline salicylate 186, 208 chondroitin 321, 338 ciclosporin 57, 79, 92, 105, 113, 127, 141, 159, 289 cimetidine 80, 249, 281, 350 cinnarizine 29, 95, 181, 205, 350 ciprofloxacin 17, 39, 41, 57, 79, 109, 131, 159,171, 177, 219, 243, 249, 267, 324, 346 citalopram 264, 290 citric acid 67, 345, 346 clarithromycin 23, 24, 43, 44, 94, 114, 140, 159, 171, 175, 201, 234, 254, 272, 279, 280, 281, 296, 302, 348 clavulanic acid 114, 194, 215, 345 clindamycin 94, 172, 178, 203, 226, 248, 269, 280, 284, 285, 300, 304, 346 clioquinol 184, 207 clobetasol 346 clobetasone 270 clomethiazole 31, 347 clonazepam 154 clopidogrel 45, 67 clotrimazole 27, 31, 71, 112, 159, 191, 213, 223, 246, 346 clove oil 123 clozapine 233, 253, 271, 295 coal tar 104, 126, 191, 213, 228, 250 co-amoxiclav 5, 94, 114, 147, 171, 175, 177, 193-4, 215, 219, 243, 345 cocaine 147, 168, 272, 296 co-careldopa 181, 205, 277, 300, 319 co-codamol 90, 112, 318, 333 codeine 28, 67, 103, 112, 175, 178, 201, 203, 219, 225, 234, 248, 249, 254, 279, 280, 302, 333, 350 colchicine 130 colestyramine 153, 349 cortisone acetate 294 co-trimoxazole 20, 41-2, 135, 141, 152, 160,177, 219, 243 crotamiton 31, 41, 347 cyclizine 53, 71, 95, 348 cyclophosphamide 16, 38, 52, 74 cyproterone 259 dapsone 305, 325 daunorubicin 146, 166 desflurane 147, 168 desloratadine 266, 291 dexamethasone 80, 138, 145, 155, 156, 159, 164, 235, 255, 269, 293, 294, 324, 341, 349 dextromethorphan 28, 69, 178, 183, 203, 206, 228, 249, 345, 346 dextrose 176, 305, 325 diamorphine 258 diazepam 7, 8, 30, 31, 86, 92, 99, 121, 124, 137, 144, 154, 162, 179, 187, 203, 209, 221, 252, 256, 294, 320, 336, 337, 350 diclofenac 5, 29, 73, 79-80, 86, 97-8, 112, 118-19, 137, 154, 175, 183, 201, 207, 264, 269, 290, 293, 317, 318,332-3, 345, 350 diflucortolone 348 digoxin 14, 36, 45, 67-8, 93, 98, 119-20, 177, 188, 202, 210, 226, 348 diltiazem 246, 350 dimeticone 350 dinoprostone 221, 244 diphenhydramine 28, 118, 178, 203, 266, 291, 350 diphtheria vaccine 78, 268, 293 disodium etidronate 251, 346 disulfiram 147, 169 dobutamine 188, 209 docetaxel 117 docusate sodium 31, 34, 184, 207, 235, 255, 263, 348 domperidone 12, 29, 183, 223, 245, 267, 319,334, 348 dorzolamide 299, 328 doxazosin 346 doxorubicin 52, 74, 117-18 doxycycline 6, 99, 120, 177, 195, 215, 219, 232, 243, 253 doxylamine 67, 350 drospirenone 31, 39, 351 DTP vaccine 78 dydrogesterone 16, 38, 146, 166, 190, 212 econazole 22, 31, 280, 302, 349 emedastine 31, 347 enalapril 62, 84, 93, 97-8, 107, 108, 118-19, 177, 221, 244 entacapone 181, 205 ephedrine 61, 83-4 epinephrine see adrenaline epoetin 158 ergometrine 221, 244 ergotamine 48, 70, 71, 181, 205, 232, 252, 276, 299, 348 erythromycin 41, 44, 227, 234, 245, 254, 267, 269, 277, 293, 300, 302, 347 erythropoietins 139, 157 esomeprazole 14, 33, 36, 348 estradiol 72 estriol 71, 349 ethinylestradiol 31, 39, 259, 346, 351 exenatide 33, 346 ezetimibe 153, 347 famciclovir 7, 30, 47, 70 fatty cream base 226, 248, 348 fentanyl 90, 112, 175, 201 ferrous sulphate 226 fexofenadine 68, 190, 212, 350 flecainide 147, 169, 310, 328 flucloxacillin 41, 95, 116, 194, 230, 251 fluconazole 18, 40, 60, 71, 82, 346 flumazenil 62, 84 fluocinolone 238, 258, 270, 350 fluocortolone 294 fluorouracil 92, 113 fluoxetine 99, 120 flupentixol 235, 256, 271, 295 flurazepam 336 fluticasone 54, 62, 76, 85, 186, 208, 270, 294, 323, 340, 347 fluvastatin 12, 34, 153, 176, 201, 348 fluvoxamine 12, 34, 139, 157, 249 folic acid (folate) 125, 138, 155, 177, 230, 237, 251, 257 formoterol 82 framycetin 159, 349 furosemide 64, 70, 86, 211, 271, 295, 310, 327, 348 fusidic acid 27, 41, 93, 94, 114, 115, 182, 206, 222, 267, 324, 347 gabapentin 140 galantamine 272, 296 gelatin 143, 162 gentamicin 6, 94, 115, 152, 183, 184, 188, 207, 210, 222, 223, 245, 246, 263, 267, 289, 291, 324, 341 glibenclamide 5, 18, 40, 60, 178, 202, 285, 286, 304, 347 gliclazide 18, 40, 60, 82, 97, 135, 152-3, 178, 203, 286, 304, 312 glimepiride 178, 203 glucosamine 321, 338 glucose 183, 206, 346 glycerin 191, 214 glycerol suppositories 89, 111 glyceryl trinitrate 144, 163, 219, 225, 247, 272, 275, 298 gramicidin 159, 349 griseofulvin 60, 83, 222 guaifenesin 46, 68, 311 haloperidol 9, 32, 83, 233, 235, 253, 256, 271, 295, 349 heparin 58, 80, 96, 117, 163, 166, 309, 327 low-molecular-weight 166 hepatitis A vaccine 10, 32 hepatitis A virus units 32 hepatitis B surface antigen 32 hepatitis B vaccine 10, 32, 83, 319, 335 human papilloma virus vaccine 7, 30 hydralazine 5, 29 hydrochlorthiazide 221, 244 hydrocortisone 3, 8, 27, 31, 43, 48, 49, 70, 71, 93, 114, 118, 182, 184, 186, 206, 207, 209, 262, 270, 288, 294, 307, 326, 346, 347, 349 hydrocortisone butyrate 186, 270 hydroxyzine 69, 345 hyoscine 95 hyoscine butylbromide 73, 128-9, 334, 345 hyoscine hydrobromide 29, 348 hypromellose 239, 259 ibandronic acid 165, 321, 338, 345 ibuprofen 43, 137, 154, 177, 234, 349 ifosfamide 156 imipramine 63, 85-6, 181, 205, 268, 272, 292,296 imiquimod 142, 161 indapamide 73, 188, 210, 271, 348 indometacin 234, 238, 255, 258, 269, 293,348 infliximab 144, 163 influenza vaccine 32 insulin 15, 36, 139, 152-3, 164, 221, 286 insulin aspart 18, 40, 309, 327 insulin glargine 168, 348 interferon beta 16, 37 ipratropium bromide 276, 299, 311, 328, 329 irinotecan 272 iron supplements 177, 190, 212 isoprenaline 188, 209 isosorbide dinitrate 45, 67, 70, 188, 210, 225, 226, 247, 348 isotretinoin 172, 277, 300, 349 ispaghula husk 111, 191, 214, 224, 246, 347 itraconazole 169-70, 177, 195, 202, 215, 227,249, 349 ivabradine 98, 119 kanamycin 222, 245 kaolin and morphine 224, 246 ketoconazole 124, 170, 191, 213, 222, 228,250, 269, 293, 348 ketoprofen 19, 41, 190, 212, 308, 327, 349 ketotifen 116, 351 lactic acid 249 lactose 227, 249 lactulose 5, 14, 28, 36, 125, 224, 230, 234, 246, 255, 267, 347 lamotrigine 138, 155 lanolin 347, 350 lansoprazole 263 latanoprost 85, 106, 128, 350 levocetirizine 28, 68, 350 levodopa 12, 34, 58, 80, 187, 205 levofloxacin 17, 39, 350 levomenthol 69, 348 levonorgestrel 265, 290 levothyroxine 213, 321, 322, 338, 339 lidocaine 32, 182, 206, 226, 248, 350 liquid paraffin 5, 28, 347, 349 lisinopril 5, 29, 86, 135, 152, 351 lithium 5, 12, 29, 34, 83, 101, 123, 146, 167, 235, 256 loperamide 35, 49, 72, 188, 209, 224, 246, 278, 301, 319, 334, 348 loratadine 31, 43, 68, 346 lorazepam 154, 237, 252, 256, 268, 292, 336, 345 losartan 5, 29, 225, 247, 346 magnesium carbonate 43, 346, 349 magnesium citrate 349 magnesium hydroxide 89, 111, 183, 206, 227, 277, 348 magnesium salts 191, 214, 235, 255 magnesium sulphate 5, 28 magnesium trisilicate 347 mannitol 139, 157 measles vaccine 268, 293 mebendazole 54, 76, 125, 238, 258, 350 mebeverine 54, 76, 263, 311, 328, 346 mefenamic acid 90, 111, 263, 270, 289, 318, 333 mefloquine 14, 36, 141, 160 melatonin 54, 76, 346 meloxicam 29, 54, 76, 269, 294, 348 meprobamate 54 mepyramine 19, 41, 93, 114, 182, 206 mesalazine 135 metazolone 271 metformin 40, 85, 154, 168, 178, 202, 312, 329 methadone 134, 151 methotrexate 52, 64, 65, 66, 74, 86, 87, 92, 113, 146, 166, 230, 237, 251, 257, 293 methylprednisolone 294 metoclopramide 92, 95, 115, 116, 225, 247, 267, 334 metronidazole 70, 140, 158, 171, 177, 202, 277, 300, 319, 334, 347 miconazole 22, 27, 42, 71, 72, 118, 170, 346, 347 midazolam 144, 162-3 minocycline 42, 120, 253 mirtazapine 148, 170 misoprostol 32, 49, 71-2, 79-80, 345, 346 mitomycin 52 mivacurium 309, 327 moclobemide 232, 253, 268, 292 mometasone 159 mometasone furoate 31, 348 morphine 7, 20, 30, 42, 102, 124, 151, 237, 258 morphine sulphate 265, 290 mumps vaccine 268, 293 mupirocin 6, 30, 41, 54, 75, 129, 182, 206, 222, 245, 345 naloxone 13, 35, 53, 74, 97, 112, 118, 350 naproxen 29, 55, 71, 112, 179, 188, 203, 210, 262, 275, 281, 287, 298, 318, 333, 348 neomycin 27, 184, 207, 245, 349 nicorandil 13, 35, 348 nicotine 59, 80-1 nicotinic acid 140, 158 nifedipine 3, 5, 13, 27, 35, 91, 112, 225, 246, 247, 345 nitrazepam 336 nitrofurantoin 13, 35, 215, 348 nitrous oxide 147, 167-8 norfloxacin 13, 35, 171, 350 norgestimate 8, 31, 259, 346 norgestrel 281 nystatin 60, 83, 186, 208 oestrogen 281, 349 olanzapine 253, 322, 339-40 olive oil 123 omalizumab 145, 163 omeprazole 23, 24, 43, 44, 49, 58, 71, 80, 98, 106, 119, 128, 348 ondansetron 53, 75, 263, 288, 351 orciprenaline 33, 59, 82, 345 orlistat 42, 62, 84, 350 orphenadrine 181, 188, 205, 209, 225, 232, 248, 253, 277, 300 oxcarbazepine 155 oxymetazoline 222, 245 oxytocin 181, 205, 221, 244 paclitaxel 20, 41, 58, 80, 117-18, 272, 296 paracetamol 28, 64, 67, 69, 74, 93, 112, 114, 177, 183, 194, 195, 196, 215, 216, 265, 269, 270, 273, 274, 290, 293, 294, 297, 331, 345, 346, 350 paradichlorobenzene 346 paroxetine 5, 29, 126, 227, 268, 292 pegzerepoetin alfa 139, 157-8 penciclovir 7, 30, 70 penicillin G 230, 251 penicillin V 230 perindopril 5, 29, 64, 86, 159, 346 permethrin 228, 250 pertussis vaccine 56, 78 pethidine 7, 20, 30, 42, 102, 124 phenylephrine 28, 31, 69, 125, 222, 245, 281, 345, 350 phenylpropanolamine 28, 222, 245, 346 phenytoin 56, 77, 93, 98, 102, 103, 114, 119, 125, 126, 155, 170-1, 187, 249, 270 pholcodine 178, 183, 203, 206, 249 pilocarpine 319, 335 pimecrolimus 128, 347 pine oils 69, 348 piperacillin 230, 251 piracetam 19, 41, 348 piroxicam 19, 41, 347 pivampicillin 194 pizotifen 53 pneumococcal vaccine 105, 127 podophyllum 226, 248 polio vaccine 56, 78 polymyxin 27, 349 potassium chloride 116, 183, 206, 307, 326, 346, 348, 349 potassium permanganate 226, 248 potassium salts 273, 296 povidone-iodine 71, 280, 345 prednisolone 58, 80, 87, 104, 145, 147, 164, 169, 177, 183, 186, 202, 209, 219, 243, 273, 294, 297, 346 prilocaine 147, 168, 182, 206 prochlorperazine 62, 84, 122, 271, 323, 339, 345, 350 promethazine 18, 28, 29, 31, 35, 40, 95, 115, 118, 124, 182, 183, 206, 207, 266, 291, 345, 349 propofol 140, 158 propranolol 33, 64, 86, 92, 226, 227, 232, 243, 252, 276, 299, 348 prostaglandin E2 46, 68 pseudoephedrine 28, 68, 69, 222, 245, 263, 288, 345, 346, 350 quetiapine 253 rabeprazole 49, 71, 349 ranibizumab 154, 348 ranitidine 35, 49, 58, 72, 80, 97, 140, 263, 267, 273, 297, 311, 329, 351 remifentanil 7, 30 repaglinide 62, 85, 286, 312 retinol 230, 251 riboflavin 230, 251 rifampicin 249 risedronate sodium 146, 165, 345 risperidone 70-1, 253, 349 ritodrine 221, 244 rivastigmine 155-6, 347 rosiglitazone 18, 40, 164, 312, 329, 345 rotavirus attenuated strain 32 rubella vaccine 268, 293 salbutamol 28, 47, 69, 180, 204, 219, 221, 263, 289, 311, 328-9, 350 salicylic acid 17, 39, 121, 178, 191, 203, 213, 228, 249, 250, 277, 300, 323, 340 saline 263, 288, 305, 306 salmeterol 82 selenium 228, 250 senna 5, 28, 221, 225, 248 sibutramine 104, 127 sildenafil 47, 70, 350 silver nitrate 142, 161 simeticone 267, 291 simvastatin 99, 120, 272, 273, 296, 351 sirolimus 105, 127 sitagliptin 137, 154 sodium alginate 227, 249 sodium aurothiomalate 269, 293 sodium bicarbonate 67, 306, 325, 345, 346, 347 sodium chloride 176, 182, 183, 201, 206, 227, 307, 309, 326, 327, 346 sodium citrate 183, 206 sodium cromoglicate 34, 311, 349 sodium docusate see docusate sodium sodium fusidate 6, 175 sodium hydroxide 261, 287 sodium picosulfate 347, 349 soft paraffin 347, 349 sorafenib 106, 128 spironolactone 33, 271, 295, 345 streptomycin 135, 152 strontium ranelate 310, 327 sucrose 227, 249 sulfasalazine 230, 251-2 sumatriptan 53, 75, 99, 120, 175, 181, 201, 205, 272 tamoxifen 16, 38, 52, 59, 80, 322, 339 teicoplanin 289 telithromycin 44, 348 temazepam 336 terazosin 320, 335 terbinafine 18, 40, 60, 71, 83, 129, 169-70, 222, 348 terbutaline 82 terfenadine 212 terpineol 69, 348 testosterone 17, 39 tetanus vaccine 78 tetracosactide 142, 161-2 tetracosactrin see tetracosactide tetracycline 120, 219, 243, 267, 277, 300 theophylline 6, 29, 93, 103, 126, 227, 249 thiamine 274 thymol 69, 348 thyroxine 102, 124, 190, 213 see also levothyroxine tibolone 38, 145, 165, 348 timolol 128, 350 tobramycin 152, 222, 245 tolbutamine 47, 69, 178, 203 tolnaftate 107, 130, 191, 213 trabectedin 138, 156 tramadol 53, 75, 175, 201, 225, 248, 273, 296 tranexamic acid 232, 252, 311, 328 trastuzumab 96, 117-18 triamcinolone 49, 71, 186 triclosan 178, 203 trifluoperazine 277, 278, 300, 301 trihexyphenidyl 14, 36, 181, 205 trimethoprim 41-2, 152, 153, 175, 215 trimipramine 146, 167 triprolidine 28, 68, 69, 222, 245, 345 urokinase 232, 252 valaciclovir 30 valproate 102, 125, 155 valsartan 5, 29, 272, 296, 321 vancomycin 6, 269, 289 varenicline 145, 164 venlafaxine 55, 77, 268, 292 verapamil 27, 246 verteporfin 154 vincristine 92, 113 vitamin A 177, 202 vitamin B2 230, 251 vitamin C 178, 203, 274, 297 vitamin E 177 voriconazole 309, 327 warfarin 80, 106, 129, 140, 158, 196, 216, 276, 281, 299, 302 witch hazel 74, 349 xylometazoline 31, 69, 72, 182, 206, 264, 289, 349 zafirlukast 20, 42, 47, 69 zinc 177 zinc and castor oil 19, 41, 90, 112 zinc oxide 182, 206, 227, 248, 350 zolmitriptan 102, 124, 311 zolpidem 31, 59, 82, 350 Conditions index abdominal pain 4, 28, 82, 96, 98, 101, 117, 118-19, 123, 162, 227, 249, 321, 338 peptic ulcer disease 224, 247 abortion habitual 146, 166 spontaneous 293 acne 20, 42, 48, 70, 76, 150, 172 antibacterial treatment 277, 300 management 241, 259, 284, 304 systemic treatment 178, 203 topical treatment adjustment phentermine viagra xanax 178, 203, 261, 287 addiction 134, 151, 168 see also dependence Addison's disease 146, 167 adrenal suppression 234, 255 corticosteroid side-effects 104, 126 agitation 62, 84, 96, 117, 155-6, 168, 295 agranulocytosis 52, 73, 198, 216, 295 antithyroid drugs 291, 336 AIDS 160 allergic reactions 37, 72 anaphylaxis 68, 140, 158 nasal 140 medication 4, 28, 175, 201, 269, 293, 299 allergic rhinitis 4, 27, 34, 57, 62, 79, 85, 248 corticosteroid inhalation 186, 208 rhinorrhoea management 182, 206 symptoms 89, 111 alopecia 59, 81, 245 Alzheimer's disease 138, 155-6 dementia 272, 296 amenorrhoea 190, 212, 235, 256 anaemia 139, 157, 158 aplastic 319, 333 anal fissures 144, 163 anaphylactic shock 140, 158, 276, 299 angina 91, 112, 119, 275, 298 exercise 193, 214 prophylaxis 188, 210, 225, 247 unstable 45, 67 ankle oedema 91, 112 anogenital warts 142, 161 anorexia nervosa 235, 256 anxiety 31, 62, 69, 84, 257-8, 292, 320, 336, 337 generalised anxiety disorder 77 Huntington's chorea 162 severe 9, 32, 237, 256 aphthous stomatitis 145, 164 aplastic anaemia 319, 333 arrhythmias 67-8, 82, 85-6, 98, 119-20, 147, 169, 188, 210, 248 arthritis juvenile chronic 137, 154 NSAIDs 269, 294 see also osteoarthritis; rheumatoid arthritis arthropathy 79, 243 asthma 51, 73 acute severe 20, 42 allergic 145, 163 anticholinergic agents 328 antimuscarinic agents 276, 299 attack precipitation 275, 298 beta-adrenoceptor agonists 69, 204, 328-9 corticosteroid inhalation 186, 208 exercise-induced 193, 214 glaucoma treatment 106, 128 inflammatory mediators 113 management 234, 254, 275, 298, 332 paracetamol use 315, 331 prophylaxis 279, 301 athlete's foot 16, 37, 107, 129-30, 204, 267, 292 preparations 191, 213 atopic eczema 213 atrial fibrillation 45, 67, 169 atrial tachycardia 45, 67 attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) 117 auditory nerve damage 133, 152 back pain 104, 126, 236, 256 predisposing factors 187, 209 bacterial infections 180, 188, 204, 210, 220, 243 cephalosporins 333 conjunctivitis 233, 254 diabetes mellitus 341 inflammation 233, 253 bacterial vaginosis 317, 333 benign prostatic hyperplasia 6, 76 biliary disease 115, 247 cirrhosis 153 obstruction 136, 153 bipolar disorder 83, 167 bleeding, 56, 77, 106, 129, 294, 299, 302, 328, 336 prevention 252 vaginal 10, 32 blepharitis 324, 341 blood disorders drug-induced 42, 77, 320, 336 blood, stools 37 boils see furuncles bone marrow suppression 41-2, 156 bowel obstruction 15, 36-7 bradycardia 61, 119, 243 bradykinesia 253, 300 breast cancer 59, 81 HER2 overexpression 97, 117-18 metastatic 16, 38 bronchitis, acute 15, 37 bronchoconstriction 68, 298 bronchodilatation 46, 68, 328 bronchospasm 68, 128, 322, 340 brucellosis 253 bruises 142, 160 calluses 213, 228, 249 treatment 277, 300-1, 323, 340 candidiasis antifungal agents 280, 302 corticosteroid side-effects 66, 87 intestinal 186, 208 vaginal 4, 18, 28, 40, 49, 71 carcinoma 123, 156, 157, 257 basal cell 161 breast 16, 38, 59, 81, 97, 117-18, 322, 339 endometrial 16, 38, 339 gastric 25, 44 large bowel 15, 36-7 lung 192, 214 oestrogen-dependent 282, 303 ovarian 20, 41, 282, 303 cardiotoxicity 52, 74, 117-18, 189, 211 cardiovascular disease 18, 40, 52, 74, 124, 169, 234, 255, 339, 341 risk 61, 83 cataract 57, 63, 79 corticosteroid side-effects 104, 126 central nervous system (CNS) depression 319, 320, 334, 337 cerebral oedema 139, 156-7 cerebrovascular accident 147, 169 cervical cancer 7, 30-1 cervical incompetence 146, 166 chickenpox 18, 39-40,70,126,267,292 chilblains 100, 122 chloasma 48, 70 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 276, 299 anticholinergic agents 328 beta-adrenoceptor agonists 328-9 coeliac disease 100, 122 cold sores 7, 30, 265, 290 colds 7, 30, 103, 125, 203, 248 prophylaxis 203 colic, infant 267, 291 colitis antibiotic-associated 285, 304 see also Crohn's disease; ulcerative colitis colorectal cancer 15, 36-7 condylomata acuminata 161 confusion 9 buy tramadol online 155-6, 319 congenital adrenal hyperplasia 235, 256, 316, 332 congenital malformations 246, 293 congestive heart failure 146, 166 conjunctivitis 197, 216, 233, 254 constipation 10, 28, 32, 36, 111, 246 abdominal pain 101, 123 acute 224, 246 diverticulitis 250 drug induced 75, 90, 112, 128, 167, 205, 225, 235, 248, 249, 263 tricyclic antidepressants 284, 290, 303-4 typhoid fever 82 contact dermatitis 8, 31 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) 185, 208 convulsions, 34, 84, 131, 137, 154, 179, 187, 209, 270 corns 213, 228, 249 treatment 277, 300-10, 323, 340 cough 15, 65, 87, 189, 214, 226, 280, 302 chesty 37, 226, 237, 248, 257 croup 100, 121, 155 dry 203, management 178, 203 pain 103, 125 pneumonitis 147, 169 respiratory tract infections 192, 214 sputum viscosity 183, 206-7 cradle cap 19, 41, 50, 72, 101, 123 cramps 101, 123 abdominal 116, 188, 209 muscular 205, 263, 289 Crohn's disease 144, 163, 231, 251-2 methotrexate use 237, 256 croup 100, 121 viral 138, 155 crystalluria 94, 114 cystitis 59, 81, 195, 215 dandruff 104, 126, 213, 228, 250 deafness, salicylate poisoning 237, 258 dehydration children 56, 78 sunburn 126 dementia Alzheimer's disease 272, 296 Huntington's chorea 162 Parkinson's disease 138, 155-6 dental extraction, warfarin therapy 140, 158 dependence 102, 124, 134, 151 recurrent 167 depression 77, 117, 220, 320, 337 Huntington's chorea 143, 162 major 170 treatment 167, 268, 292, 303-4 dermatitis 239, 259 contact 8, 31 napkin 90, 112 see also eczema, seborrhoeic dermatitis diabetes mellitus 11, 33, 62, 85 acarbose therapy 329 atypical antipsychotics 272, 295 blood glucose monitoring 15, 36, 324, 341 foot problems 39, 277, 300-1, 323, 340 glucocorticoid side-effects 332 hypoglycaemic reactions 176, 201 insulin secretion increase 137, 154 neural tube defects 138, 155 non-insulin dependent 185, 208 vaginal candidiasis 4, 28 diarrhoea 14, 35 antimotility drugs 188, 209 diverticulitis 250 omeprazole side-effects 24, 43 oral rehydration salts 206 referral 191, 213 treatment 278, 301 typhoid fever 82 venlafaxine side-effects 55, 77 diphtheria 268, 293 diverticular disease 89, 111, 123, 229, 328 diverticulitis 229, 250 dizziness 119, 148, 170, 227, 249, 321, 337 esomeprazole side-effects 14, 36 indometacin side-effects 238, 258 malaria prophylaxis side-effects 14, 36 drowsiness 77, 97, 116, 118, 155-6, 169, 175, 176, 180, 201, 204, 283, 303 cautionary label 95, 281, dry eyes 239, 259 dry mouth 181, 205 omeprazole side-effects 24, 43 tricyclic antidepressants 284, 303-4 dyspepsia 128, 131, 269, 316, 332 dysphagia 103, 125, 128 dysuria 180, 204 ear wax 34, 207, 255 see also otitis externa, otitis media, tinnitus eczema 101, 123 atopic 213 management 128, 191, 213, 226, 248, 316, 332 pompholyx 142, 160 see also dermatitis endocarditis 180, 204 endometrial changes 322, 339 endometriosis 16, 38, 56, 77-8 enterobiasis 46, 67-8 epilepsy 12, 34, 84, 141, 160, 247, quinolone use 17, 39, 57, 79, 171, 335-6 see also status epilepticus erythema 147, 161, 169, 193, 215, erythropoietin deficiency 139, 157 extrapyramidal side-effects 272, 295, 322, 339-40 eye blepharitis 324, 341 conjunctivitis 197, 216, 233, 254 contact lens use 198, 217 infections 91, 113, 197, 204, 216 fever 15, 16, 28, 37, 56, 58, 78, 89, 101, 122, 141, 159-60, 194, 196, 213, 215, 216, 239-40, 248, 336 side-effect 97, 117-18, see also convulsions, febrile flatulence 14, 35, 42 fluid retention 241, 259 folliculitis 106, 128 foot conditions 235, 256 diabetes mellitus 323, 340 see also athlete's foot, diabetes mellitus fungal infections 22, 37, 204, 246, 292 nail 18, 40, 60, 83, 148, 169-70 otitis externa 140 skin inflammation 43 vaginal 49, 71 see also athlete's foot furuncles 48, 70, 182, 206 gastric cancer 25, 44 gastroenteritis 19, 41 gastrointestinal bleeding 43, 106, 229, 243, 250 gastrointestinal disturbances 57, 79, 106, 116, 124, 212, 255, 337 gastrointestinal ulcers 49, 71-2 see also peptic ulcer disease gastro-oesophageal reflux 56, 78, 227, 249, 266, 291 genital herpes 70 genital warts 142, 161 German measles 224, 246, 292 giant cell arteritis 147, 169 gingival hyperplasia 93, 114 gingivitis 91, 113 glaucoma 52, 63, 73, 85 angle-closure 106, 128 carbonic anhydrase inhibitor use 276, 299, 311, 328 clinical features 187, 209 closed-angle 220, 243 secondary 79 treatment in asthma 106, 128 gout 51, 73, 108, 130 side-effect 183, 207 prophylaxis 210 treatment 188, 210 gynaecomastia 17, 39, 183 haemophilia 117, 319, 335 haemorrhage 96, 117, 128, 294 hay fever see allergic rhinitis head lice infestation 15, 37, 250 headache 3, 27 esomeprazole side-effects 14, 36 indometacin side-effects 238, 258 levodopa side-effects 58, 80 morning 58, 80-1, 229, 250 omeprazole side-effects 24, 43 referral 99, 121 salbutamol side-effects 263, 289 testosterone side-effects 17, 39 typhoid fever 82 venlafaxine side-effects 55, 77 see also migraine heart failure 118, 119, 146, 176, 202, 249, 312 ACE inhibitors 188, 210 digoxin 67 NSAIDs 130 rosiglitazone 164, 312, 329 Helicobacter pylori infection 25, 43, 44, hepatic disorders 97, 117, 118 hepatic failure 185, 207 hepatic impairment 16, 59, 82, 97, 118, 166, 181, 205 hepatic necrosis 270, 294 hepatitis 267, 292 hepatitis A 10, 32 hepatitis B 10, 32, 60, 83, 319, 335 hepatitis C 60, 83 hepatotoxicity 331 herpes, genital 70 herpes simplex 7, 30, 75 labialis 7, 30, 48, 70 ocular 316, 332 herpes zoster virus 292 hiatus hernia 100, 121 hiccup, intractable 9, 32 hirsutism 17, 39 hoarseness 155, 234, 254 Huntington's chorea 143, 162 hypercalcaemia 67-8, 176, 300 hyperglycaemia 62, 85, 180, 204, 272, 295 hyperhidrosis 184, 207 hyperkalaemia 59, 81, 159, 296 hyperlipidaemia 83 hypersensitivity reactions 97, 117-19, 123, 125, 126, 146, 166, 284, 340 hypertension 58, 80, 86, 91, 97-8, 112, 118-19 ACE inhibitors 188, 210 bevacizumab side effect 146, 165-6 drug contraindications 275, 296, 316, 332 drug interactions 138, 156 glucocorticoid contraindication 316, 332 paracetamol use 315, 331 treatment side-effects 220, 243 hyperthyroidism 125, 190, 225, 231, 252 dry eyes 239, 259 treatment 266, 291 hypoglycaemia insulin therapy 18, 40 management 286, 304 nocturnal 286, 304 recurrent symptomatic 147, 168 signs 286, 304 treatment 176, 201 hypokalaemia 101, 123, 176, 183, 202, 207 hyponatraemia 176, 183, 202, 207 hypotension bumetanide side-effects 183, 207 diuretic interactions with ACE inhibitors 279, 301 epidural anaesthesia 61, 83-4 first-dose 319, 335 opioid-induced 237, 258 postural 106, 129 hypothyroidism 34, 124, 225 rhabdomyolysis 158 therapy 190, 213, 322, 339 immunosuppression 7, 30 impetigo 19, 41, 106, 128 impotence 96, 117 incontinence 189, 211 indigestion 321, 338 infant colic 267, 291 infections diabetes 244, life-threatening 58, 319, 333 prophylaxis 60, 319 respiratory 192, 193-5, treatment 251, 291, 319, 333-4, 341 see also bacterial infections; eye infections; fungal infections; viral infections infectious mononucleosis 268, 293 infertility 56, 78 inflammation 33, 43, 59, 81, 100, 113, 160, 213-4, 233, 253, 332, 341 salivary glands 292, inflammatory bowel disease 312, 329 see also Crohn's disease; ulcerative colitis influenza 32 insomnia 8, 31, 76, 338 benzodiazepines 292, 320, 336, 337, bupropion 164 corticosteroid 66, 87 levodopa 58, 80 intracranial pressure, raised 156, 229, 250 intraocular pressure 69, 323, 328, 340 see also glaucoma irritable bowel syndrome 73, 76, 328 irritation 37, 107, 166, 287, 323, 340 ischaemic heart disease 53, 75, 124, 125 see also angina jaundice 117, 207 jellyfish sting 193, 215 juvenile chronic arthritis 137, 154 kidney disease chronic 139, 158 loin pain 146, 167 see also renal impairment labyrinthine disorders 101, 122 large bowel carcinoma 15, 36-7 laryngotracheobronchitis see croup Legionnaire's disease 92, 114 Leucopenia 320, 336 lice 18, 40 see also head lice infestation lichen planus 17, 39 liver disease 97, 118 see also hepatic entries loin pain 146, 167 lung cancer 214 see also carcinoma macular degeneration 154 malaise 78, 111, 155-6, 226, 239-40, 248 malaria 141, 159-60 prophylaxis 14, 36, 60, 83 malignant disease see carcinoma mania 101, 123, 167 acute attack 235, 256 measles 268, 293 melaena 15, 36-7 meningitis 191, 213-14 menopause 71, 322, 339 osteoporosis 145, 165 symptoms 17, 38, 255, 303 menorrhagia 212, 328 migraine 48, 53, 70, 75 aura 100, 122 combined oral contraceptives 92, 113 ergotamine use 181, 205 hormone replacement therapy 282, 303 nausea and vomiting 62, 84 prophylaxis 232, 252, 276, 299 serotonin agonists 120 triggers 100, 122 milk-alkali syndrome 300 miscarriage, recurrent 146, 166 mosquito bites 93, 114 motion sickness 6, 29, 95, 115, 319, 334 motor tics 9, 32 mucositis, post-radiation 33 multiple sclerosis 16, 37 mumps 56, 78, 267, 292 vaccine 268, 293 muscle cramps 263, 289 myalgia 176, 201 myasthenia gravis 11, 33 myocardial infarction 67, 98, 119, 237, 257-8, 322, 339 myopathy 296 nail infections, fungal 18, 40, 60, 83, 148, 169-70 napkin dermatitis 90, 112 nappy rash 19, 41, 72 nasal allergy 140 nasal congestion, infants 263, 288-9 nausea and vomiting 36, 101, 122, 209, 258, 286, 315, 331 chemotherapy-associated 80, 245, 263, 288 drug side-effects 58, 80, 96, 98, 109, 119, 131, 169, 205, 240, 241, 249, 290, 300, 321, 338 headache 62, 84, 99, 121 management 75, 334 neck stiffness 3, 27, 58, 80-1, 213-4 nephrotoxicity 57, 79, 97-8, 115, 118-19, 146, 159, 166, 289 see also renal impairment neural tube defects 102, 125, 138, 155 neutropenia 239, 259 nose bleeds 99, 121 numbness 99, 121 obesity 21, 42, 84 hiatus hernia 100, 121 management 104, 126 obsessive-compulsive disorder 139, 157 ocular herpes simplex 316, 332 oedema 15, 147, 161, 169, 176, 202, 207 cerebral 139, 156 eyelid 124 oestrogen deficiency 145, 165 oestrogen-dependent carcinoma 282, 303 see also carcinoma onychomycosis 148, 169-70 organ rejection, prophylaxis 127 oropharyngeal inflammation 33 osteoarthritis glucosamine use 321, 338 secondary 185, 207 osteomalacia 236, 256 osteonecrosis of jaw 146, 165 osteoporosis 66, 87, 104, 127 back pain 236, 256 calcium use 230, 251 glucocorticoid side-effects 332 postmenopausal 145, 165 predisposing factors 231, 252 prophylaxis 282, 303 otitis externa 140, 184, 207 otitis media 92, 104, 113, 126 cefuroxime use 317, 333 ototoxicity 115, 289 ovarian cancer 20, 41 see also carcinoma Paget's disease 185, 207 pain 20, 48, 79, 103, 107-8, 125, 167, 212, 328 abdominal 247, back 104, 127, 187, 236, 256 foot 36, 107 myocardial infarction 67, 257-8, ocular 209 palliative 151 palpitations 176, 204, 220, 227, 231, 249, 286, 304, 322, 339 paraesthesia 3, 10, 27, 33, 99, 121 parkinsonism 9, 32 Parkinson's disease 181, 225, 334 dementia 138, 155-6 treatment 9, 32, 232, 253, 277, 300 parotid gland enlargement 56, 78 pelvic pain 56, 78 peptic ulcer disease 224, 247 corticosteroid side-effects 104, 126 histamine receptor antagonist 329 periodontitis 59, 81, 113, 299-300 peripheral neuritis 147, 169 peripheral neuropathy 185, 207 peritonitis 180, 204 photophobia 198, 216 photosensitivity 18, 40, 120, 226, 241, 248 plantar warts 39, 161 plaque 186, 208, 214, 276, 299-300 pneumococcal infection 105, 127 Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) 141, 160 pneumonitis 147, 169 polycystic ovary syndrome 235, 256 pompholyx 142, 160 porphyria 11, 33 pregnancy contraindications 177, 202, 230, 238, 243, 251, 258, 332 back pain 104, 126, 236, 256 bromocriptine administration 16, 38 corticosteroid use 145, 164 diet 193, 214 drug safety 121 drug use 135, 152-3 folate supplements 138, 155 genital warts 161 hiatus hernia 121 malaria prophylaxis 141, 160 neural tube defects 102, 125 quinolone use 57, 79 rubella 224, 246, 269, 293 thrombo-embolic disease 58, 80 urinary tract infection 219, 243 vaginal candidiasis 4, 28 vomiting 229, 250 premenstrual tension 212 pressure ulcers 189, 211 prostatic hypertrophy 51, 73, 237, 256 loop diuretics 271, 295 pruritus 17, 46, 68-9, 122, 142, 176 biliary obstruction 153 esomeprazole side-effects 14, 36 psoriasis 52, 74, 213 methotrexate use 257 psychiatric reactions to glucocorticoids 316, 332 psychosis 169, 319 rash, typhoid fever 82 red eye syndrome 332 reflux oesophagitis 58 see also gastro-oesophageal reflux renal calculi 146, 167 renal impairment 55, 77, 94, 114, 115 ACE inhibitor 275, 298 crystalluria 94, 114 lithium 167 magnesium-containing antacids 235, 255 metformin 312, 329 methotrexate 146, 166 rhabdomyolysis 158 renal necrosis 270, 294 respiratory depression 52, 73 respiratory tract infections 148-9, 170-1 cough 192, 214 upper 175, 201, 317, 333 see also infections Reye's syndrome 121 rhabdomyolysis 140, 158 rheumatic disease 257 rheumatoid arthritis 52, 74, 185, 207 rhinorrhoea 89, 111, 182, 196, 206, 215 allergic rhinitis 226, 248 ringworm infections 125 rosacea 239, 259 rose-coloured spots, typhoid fever 82 rotavirus infection 32 rubella 224, 246, 267, 268, 292, 293 effects 269, 293 scabies 180, 204 schizophrenia 9, 16, 32, 38 sciatica 90, 112 seborrhoeic dermatitis 48, 70 dandruff 104, 126 infantile 101, 123 scalp 19, 41, 50, 72 sedation 83, 95, 115, 148, 162-3, 266, 296, 339 see also drowsiness seizures 79, 164, 170-1, 270, tonic-clonic 83 see also epilepsy; status epilepticus septicaemia 101, 122, 180, 204 shigellosis 180, 204 shingles 18, 39-40 shortness of breath 147, 169 skin disorders discoloration 57, 79 dry 15, 22, 102, 123 infection 106, 129 pompholyx 142, 160 scabies 180, 204 sun exposure 48, 70 topical preparations 106, 129 sneezing 57, 79, 111, 212, 226, 248, 288-9 soft-tissue sarcoma 138, 156 sore throat 239, 259, 291 sprains 142, 160 status epilepticus 232, 252 diazepam use 320, 337 stillbirth 293 stomatitis 251 stroke, 156, 282, 303, 339-40 sunburn 104, 126 supraventricular arrhythmias 120 tachycardia dehydration in children 56, 78 drug side-effect 17, 39, 45, 67-8, 98, 124, 157, 168, 202, 204, 263, 288, 289, 300, 322, 328-9, 339 tapeworm infections 179, 204 tardive dyskinesia 233, 253, 278, 301 taste disturbance 145, 164 teeth staining 120, 186, 208, 276, 299-300 threadworm infections 46, 67-8, 76, 113, 125 thrombocytopenia 96, 117 thromboembolic disorders 145, 165, 282, 303 pregnancy 58, 80 venous 8, 31 thrombosis 139, 157, 196, 252, 233 symptoms 15, 36 thrush oral 229 vaginal 280, 302 thyrotoxicosis 339 tinea pedis 16, 37, 179, 204, 267, 292 see also athlete's foot tinnitus 189, 211 salicylate poisoning 237, 258 travel sickness see motion sickness trauma, inflammation 233, 253 tremor 17, 39, 155-6, 231, 252, 253, 263, 289, 304, 328-9 trigeminal neuralgia 83, 225, 247 tuberculosis 15, 37 BCG vaccination 78 typhoid fever 19, 41, 60, 82 ulcerative colitis 319, 334 urinary retention 146, 167 drugs side effect 73, 205, 257, 283, 303 loop diuretics 295 urinary tract infection 35, 109, 110, 130, 131 cefuroxime use 317, 333 pregnancy 219, 243 see also cystitis urine discolouration 58, 80 urticaria 117-18, 189, 211, 220, 239, 259 uterine fibroids 59, 81, 322, 339 vaginal atrophy 71, 181 vaginal bleeding 10, 32, 165, 233, 253-4 vaginal candidiasis 4, 18, 28, 40, 49, 71, 280, 302 see also thrush vaginal infections, fungal 49, 71 vaginosis, bacterial 317, 333 varicella zoster 7, 30 vasoconstriction 48, 70, 75, 120, 139, 243 vasodilatation 77, 202, buy tramadol blog 205, 213, 300, 320 vasomotor symptoms 17, 38-9, 234, 255 venous thromboembolic disease see thromboembolic disorders venous thrombosis see thrombosis ventricular arrhythmias 120, 147, 169 see also arrhythmias verrucas 39, 100, 121 vertigo 101, 122 vestibular nerve damage 135, 152 viral infections 267, 292 conjunctivitis 233, 254 see also infections vision, blurred 55, 77, 303, 319, 334 visual disturbances 119, 180, 187, 204, 209 vomiting 95, 115, 247 abdominal pain 101, 123 early morning 229, 250 postoperative 115 see also nausea and vomiting warts 213 feet 39, 161 hands 161 weakness 99, 120, 162, 180, 204, 304 weight gain 231, 332 weight loss 15, 37, 101, 155-6, 162, 207, 247, 252, 316 Whipple's disease 143, 162 Zollinger-Ellison syndrome 329 Subject index acetone 319, 334 acetylcholinesterase reversible inhibitors 296 acid rebound 277, 300 activated clotting time 163 activated partial thromboplastin time 163 addiction 75 adjunctive therapy 129-30, 158 adjuvant therapy 322 adrenoceptor agonists, partially selective 59, 82 adverse reactions 102, 124, 134, 151, 276, 322 calcium-channel blockers 97, 118 signs 189, 211 albumin 314, 330 alcohol avoidance calcineurin inhibitors 106, 128 metronidazole 177, 202, 277, 300, 319, 334 tricyclic antidepressants 296 alcohol consumption 109, 220, 243 alcohol dependence 169 alcohol withdrawal 232, 252 aldosterone antagonists 33, 295 alkalinising agents 59, 81 alkylating agents 52, 74 alpha-adrenoceptor blockers 30, 320, 335 selective 76-7 amino acids 229, 250 aminoglycosides 115, 210, 9 buy tramadol online 222, 245 administration route 291 pregnancy use 135, 152 toxicity 289 anaesthesia 9, 32, 248, 296 CNS depression reversal 62, 84 induction with benzodiazepines 144, 163 metformin contraindication 312, 329 nitrous oxide 147, 167-8 prilocaine 147, 168, 206 solutions 220, 244 topical 104, 114, 126, 168, 228 volatile liquids 147, 167-8 analgesics 20, 33, 42, 45, 67, 186, 331 absorption 74 activity 74 cold remedies 28, 69 compound analgesics 67, 112 epidural 9, 32 myocardial infarction 237, 257-8 opioids 53, 75, 124, 151, 201, 248, 296 toothache 208 see also non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors 29, 84, 86, 244, 247, 302 diuretics 275, 279, 298, 301 drug interactions 159 NSAID interactions 118 pregnancy use 135, 152 renal impairment 275, 298 use 188, 210 angiotensin-II receptor antagonists 29, 247, 296, 335 antacids 224, 227, 235, 247, 249, 255, 266, 300 anthelmintics 76, 125, 238, 258 anthracyclines 74, 117-18, 146, 156, 166 anti-arrhythmic drugs 210, 248 antibacterials 19, 41, 65, 87 acne treatment 203, 277, 300 administration route 267, 291 aminoglycosides 115, 135, 152, 210, 222, 245, 289 anaphylactic shock 276, 299 anthracycline 74, 146, 166 broad spectrum 75, 197, 216, 232, 253 cephalosporins 171, 240, 259, 293, 317, 333 cystitis 195, 215 drug interactions 171 macrolides 114, 159, 170-1, 234, 254, 293, 302 otitis externa 184, 207 penicillins 171, 215, 230, 243, 251, 293 quinolones 35, 39, 41, 79, 131, 159, 171, 243, 319, 333-4 sulphonamides 20, 41-2 synergism 20, 41-2 tetracyclines 20, 42, 120, 215, 243, 253 topical 222, 245 triple therapy 254 ureidopenicillin 251 anticholinergics 328 bronchoconstriction inhibition 329 anticoagulants 129, 158, 276, 299 drug interactions 302 anticomedonal drugs 76 antidepressants see monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs); selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs); tricyclic antidepressants antidiabetic drugs 145, 164, 168, 178, 304 antidiarrhoeal agents 35, 72, 246 children 301 anti-emetic drugs 61, 84, 247, 263, 288 anti-epileptic drugs 77, 83, 137, 247 drug interactions 159 neural tube defects 155 side-effects 320, 336 uses 320, 335-6 antifibrinolytic agents 252 antifoaming agents 266, 291 antifungal preparations 40, 72, 83, 112, 124, 213 drug interactions 82, 177, 202 imidazole 27, 42, 170, 293, 302 indications 223, 246 oral 169-70 polyene 208 topical 107, 129-30, 170 triazole 18, 40, 177, 202, 249 vaginal thrush 280, 302 antihistamines 29, 31, 41, 71, 97, 114, 118, 158 motion sickness 334 non-sedating 43, 68, 190, 212, 266, 288-9, 291 prostatic hypertrophy 237, 257 sedating 35, 39-40, 69, 115, 116, 164, 203, 206-7, 266, 291 antihypertensives 138, 156 see also individual classes anti-inflammatory agents 49, 74, 238, 258 see also non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs anti-lice preparations 18, 40 antimalarial drugs 83, 141 antimetabolites 74, 87, 113, 146, 166 folic acid 237, 257 antimigraine drugs 48, 71 see also analgesics antimotility drugs 188, 209 antimuscarinic agents 29, 36, 73, 128-9, 146, 209, 248 contraindications 220, 244 indications for use 276, 299 Parkinson's disease 253, 300 side-effects 83, 103, 167, 189, 205, 211, 289, 290, 303, 339 antineoplastic agents 38, 74, 156 see also chemotherapy, cytotoxic drugs antiperspirants 184, 207 antiplatelet agents 67, 258 antiprotozoal agents 158, 277, 300 antipruritics 31, 248 antipsychotic drugs 60, 83 atypical 70-1, 117, 253, 295, 339-40 mania acute attack 235, 256 neuroleptic 69 sedation 272, 295 tardive dyskinesia 301 thioxanthene 272, 295 see also phenothiazines, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors antipyretic drugs 216 see also analgesics antiseptic agents 104, 126, 208, 276, 299-300 antispasmodics 73, 76, 328 antithyroid drugs 291 antitussives 28, 69, 203, 207, 228, 249, 254, 280, 301 see also cough preparations antiviral drugs 75, 170, 206, 290 appetite suppressants 104, 127 aromatase inhibitors 339 astringents 53, 74, 126, 248 babies convulsions 137, 154-5 diarrhoea 191, 213 raised temperature 154 see also infants bandages, support 193, 214 barrier creams 19, 41, 112, 206 benzimidazole carbamate derivatives 238, 258 benzodiazepine antagonists 84 benzodiazepines 82, 86, 209, 336 avoidance in breast-feeding 121 eye effects 124 half-life 320, 337 pharmacological properties 320, 336 short-acting 237, 256 side-effects 320, 337 therapeutic uses 232, 252, 292 water-soluble 162-3 beta-adrenoceptor blockers 33, 86, 159, 247 alpha-blocker interactions 335 angina prophylaxis 210 asthma precipitation 275, 298 lipid soluble 243 NSAID interactions 118-19 side-effects 243 topical 335 water soluble 243, 297 beta-agonists 69, 180, 204, 328-9 selective 289 beta-lactamase inhibitors 215, 230, 243, 251 see also antibacterials biguanides 154, 168, 202, 329 see also antidiabetic drugs bile acid sequestrants 153 binding agents 314, 330 bioavailability 268, 292 oral administration 227, 249 bisphosphonates 145, 165, 229, 250 actions 321, 338 blood cholesterol measurement 324, 341 blood glucose monitoring 85, 164, 324, 341 blood pressure 152, 158, increase 83, 125, 237, 297, 332 lowering 6, , 30, 220, 243-4 monitoring 140, 146, 165-6, 301 body fluid testing 98, 119 body mass index (BMI) 180, 204 body temperature monitoring 137, 154, 194, 215 bowel cleansers 191, 214 breast-feeding 25, 44 contraceptives 233, 253-4 diclofenac use 317, 332 drug avoidance 99, 121 quinolone use 79 British National Formulary 46, 68 bronchoconstriction inhibition 329 bronchodilatation 46, 67 bronchodilators 301, 328-9 inhaled 254 see also beta-agonists butyrophenones 295 calcineurin inhibitors 106, 113, 127, 128 calcium-channel blockers 27, 224, 246, 247 actions 321, 337 interactions 97, 118 dihydropyridine 35, 112 Candida albicans 179, 204 carbonic anhydrase inhibitors 33, 69, 73 glaucoma treatment 276, 299, 311, 328 cautionary labels 95, 116, 201 cervical screening 7, 30 chemoreceptor trigger zone 29, 84, 95, 115, 116, 319, 334 chemotherapy 139, 157 anthracyclines 166 anti-emetics 288 antimetabolites 74 nausea and vomiting 80, 84, 263, 268 tamoxifen combination 38 taxanes 296 see also antineoplastic agents, cytotoxic drugs children body temperature monitoring 194, 215 croup 100, 121 cystitis 59, 81 dehydration 56, 78 digital thermometers 106, 129 contraindication 99, 120, 258, 289, 301, 334 fluoroquinolones 319, 333-4 mefenamic acid dose 90, 111 paracetamol dosage 265, 290 suppositories 194, 195, 215 use 315, 331 quinolone use 57, 79 rubella 269, 293 vaccines 268, 293 see also babies; infants Chlamydia trachomatis 179, 204, 253, 254 clinical trials 189, 211 cold remedies 47, 69, 103, 125 cholestyramine 153 colonoscopy 191, 214 combined oral contraceptives 31, 233, 240, 249, 253-4, 259, 320, 336 eye effects 124 migraine 92, 113 progestogen 290 community pharmacy 134, 152 contact lenses 102, 124 contraindications 198, 217 containers for dispensing 233, 254, 298 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) 185, 208 controlled drugs 7, 30 convulsions, babies 137, 154-5 corticosteroids 27, 42, 50, 114, 155, 207, 238 270-1, 332 activity 49, 71 asthma prophylaxis 301 available strengths 76 cerebral oedema 156 Crohn's disease 231, 251-2 disease suppression 186, 209 dosage 177, 202, 307, 326 gastrointestinal irritation 243 inhaled 186, 204, 208, 234, 254-5, 271, 294 lichen planus treatment 17, 39 nausea and vomiting 80, 156 oral 234, 255, 271, 294, 297 oxidative degradation 314, 330 pompholyx 160 potency 85, 208, 258, 271, 294 pregnancy use 145, 164 side-effects 66, 87, 126, 161, 316, 332 topical 232, 252 eye 255, 341 nasal 31, 72 skin 186, 209, 248 corticotrophin analogues 142, 161 cough suppressants see antitussives counter-irritants 190, 212 creams, expiry date 175, 201 creatinine clearance 94, 114, 146, 166 cyclo-oxygenase (COX) inhibition 255 COX-2 29, 76, 294, 298 cytotoxic drugs 16, 20, 38, 41, 87, 92, 113 nausea and vomiting 75 tissue damage 221, 245 see also antineoplastic agents, chemotherapy dependence 102, 124, 151 alcohol 169 depot parenteral preparations 190, 212 diet blood pressure lowering 220, 243-4 fibre 111, 120 gluten-free 100, 122 hyperlipidaemia 99, 120 obesity 42, 286, 304 pregnancy 193, 214 dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitor 154 dissolution 292, 330 diuretics drug interactions 119, 221, 244, 275, 289, 298, 301 elderly patients 106, 129 gout 108, 130, 210 lithium contraindication 101, 123 loop 70, 86, 207, 271, 295 osmotic 157 postural hypotension 86 potassium-sparing 33, 244, 271, 295 thiazide 70, 73, 86, 176, 202, 210, 244, 295 dopamine agonists 29, 253 dopamine antagonists 116, 247, 319, 334 dosage regimen 262, 288 budesonide 306, 325 concentration of solution 309, 327 corticosteroids 307, 326 dapsone 305, 325 diazepam 179, 203 hormone replacement therapy 282, 303 infusion rate 310, 327 insulin 309, 327 intramuscular injection maximum volume 219, 243 loading dose 309, 327 naproxen 179, 203 number of tablets 310, 328 paracetamol for children 265, 290 strengths 273, 297 syringe pump 309, 327 warfarin 276, 299 driving, night time 99, 120 drug absorption 315, 320, 331, 336 drug administration aminoglycosides 291 antibacterials 267, 291 bioavailability 268, 292 carbamazepine 320, 336 costs 310, 327 diclofenac 264, 290, 317, 333 hormone replacement therapy 283, 303 inhalation 299 intra-articular 293 intramuscular 30, 161, 243 intravenous 48, 61, 70, 83, 138, 156-7, 163, 209, 337 oral 227, 249, 268, 292 paracetamol for children 265, 290 parenteral 16, 37, 38, 134, 140, 151, 158, 171, 291, 294, 333 rectal 137, 194, 209, 255, 294 serum concentrations 235 subcutaneous 139, 157-8, 163 sublingual 298 systemic 245, 288, 290, 332, 333 topical 203, 245, 290, 299, 300, 316 see also dosage regimen, drug formulations drug clearance 308, 326 drug formulations see also drug administration anaesthetic 220, 244 anhydrous powder aqueous solution 308, 326 capsules 95, 106, 148, 149, 150, co-amoxiclav suspension 194, 215 creams 308, 327 depot parenteral preparations 190, 212 dosage calculation 223, 226, 245, 246, 248 ear drops see ear drops eye drops see eye preparations long-acting 183, 207 modified-release 80, 94, 112, 116, 136, 153, 183, 207, 330 morphine sulphate 265, 290 ointment 30, 75, 106, 262, 288, 324 pessary 49, 71, polymers 314, 330 poorly soluble drugs 313, 330 solid oral 268, 292 solution concentrations 261, 287 suppositories see suppositories suspensions 266, 291 transdermal patches 138, 155, 283, 303 volume 308, 326 warfarin 276, 299 drug interactions 273, 296 ACE inhibitors 159 alpha-blockers with beta-blockers 335 antibiotics 171 anticoagulants 302 anti-epileptics 159 antiprotozoal agent 277, 300 calcium-channel blockers 97, 118 carbamazepines with oral contraceptives 320, 336 ciclosporin 141, 159 clarithromycin 159 digoxin 177, 202 diuretics 221, 244 ACE inhibitor interactions 275, 298, 301 lithium 5, 29 metronidazole with alcohol 177, 202, 319, 334 NSAIDs 109, 118-19, 131 phenytoin 171 quinolones 109, 131 triazole antifungals 177, 202 tricyclic antidepressants 296 warfarin 140, 158 drug manufacturers 11, 33 drug structure betamethasone 316, 331 paracetamol 315, 331 drug-protein binding 314, 330 ear drops 12, 34, 140, 159 ear wax softening 207, 255 elderly patients 14, 36 diuretics 106, 129 osteoporosis 231, 252 thyroxine therapy 102, 124 electrocardiogram (ECG) 102, 124, 157, 322, 339 emollients 102, 124, 191, 213, 248 Enterobius vermicularis 68-9, 92, 113 enzyme inhibition 47, 69 epidermabrasion 277, 301 epidural anaesthesia 61, 83-4 epidural analgesia 9, 32 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) 293 ergot alkaloids 70, 181, 205, 252, 299 erythropoietin-receptor activators 157-8 erythropoietins 157 Escherichia coli 59, 81 urinary tract infection 110, 131 expiry date, creams 175, 201 eye drops 74, 197, 198-9, 216, 217, 235, 255 correct use 261, 287 discarding 237, 257 dry eyes 239, 259 pilocarpine 319, 335 fetus 224, 243, 246, 269, 293 fibrates 153, 289 fibrinogen, 145, 163 fibrinolysis inhibitors 311, 328 fibrinolytic agents 232, 252 flavonoid glycosides 161 fluid intake 109, 130 fluoroquinolones see antibacterials folate antagonists 135, 152, 153 folate supplements 138, 155 gastric emptying 247 glomerular filtration rate 138, 156 glucocorticoids 332 see also corticosteroids glucose, blood level monitoring 14, 36 diabetic patients 324, 341 thiazolidinedione therapy 145, 164 urinalysis 62, 85 gluten-free diet 100, 122 glycosylated haemoglobin 324, 341 see also antidiabetics good manufacturing practice (GMP) 275, 298 Gram-negative bacteria 39, 109, 120, 131, 210, 245, 304 Gram-positive bacteria 39, 106, 109, 120, 129, 131, 188, 210, 245, 254, 304 H2-receptor antagonists 35, 72, 80, 247, 297, 312, 329 haematocrit 163 haemoglobin 163, 139, 157 Haemophilus influenzae 92, 113, 240, 259 half life 60, 67, 82, 98, 119, 234, 247, 249, 254, 320, 337 Helicobacter pylori 43, 44 histamine receptor antagonist use 329 triple therapy 234, 254 herpes zoster virus 39-40 histamine 68, 113, 193, 215, 229, 250, 312 histidine 229, 250 hormone replacement therapy 145, 165, 234, 255 administration routes 283, 303 5HTj agonists see serotonin agonists Human epidermal growth factor receptor- 2 (HER2) 97, 117 human papilloma virus (HPV) 7, 30-1, 161 imidazopyridines 82 immunisation see vaccines immunocompromised patients 141, 160 immunoglobulin E (IgE) 145, 163 immunosuppressants 79, 113, 127 methotrexate 237, 257 indole acetic acid derivatives 238, 258 infants colic 267, 291 diarrhoea 191, 213 nasal congestion 288-9 see also babies inflammatory mediators 68, 91, 113 information for patients 237, 257 information leaflets 189, 210-11 information sources 46, 68 INR 140, 158, 196, 216 inotropic cardiac glycosides 119-20 insecticides 250 insulin release failing 145, 164 release stimulation 85 requirements 221, 244 secretion 137, 154, 285, 304 International Non-proprietary Name, recommended (rINN) 189, 211 international normalised ratio see INR intestinal motility 311, 319, 328, 334 intramuscular injection 219, 243 see also drug administration, drug formulation intravenous fluids 178, 203, 305, 325 iron salts 190, 212 keratolytic agents 121, 213, 228, 249, 261, 287 corns/calluses 277, 300, 340 knee caps 102, 123 labelling cautionary 95, 116, 201, 219, 243, 281, 302 containers for dispensing 233, 254 tricyclic antidepressants 283, 303 labour induction 205, 221, 244 laxatives 5, 28 bowel cleansers 214 bulk-forming 111, 246 osmotic 111, 125, 234, 246, 255 stimulant 111, 116, 246 strengths 34 Legionella pneumophila 114 leukotriene-receptor antagonists 20, 42, 69 lipid-regulating drugs 153, 158, 264, 289 liver function tests methotrexate 65, 87 statins 12, 34 trabectedin monitoring 156 macrolides see antibacterials Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference 46, 68 medication records 4, 28 Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA), Yellow Card Scheme 151 membrane stabilising drugs 147, 169 mineralocorticoids 332 see also corticosteroids monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) 125 obsessive-compulsive disorder treatment 157 reversible (RIMA) 253, 292 mouthwash 113, 208, 276, 299-300 mucolytics 206 muscle relaxants, non-depolarising 73 nasal decongestants 68, 69, 72, 125 antihistamine combination 245 children under 6 206 dosage 289 rhinorrhoea 196, 216 topical 288 nasal spray 12, 34 corticosteroid 208 side-effects 323, 340 topical 72 Neisseria meningitidis 20, 42 nerve block, cocaine mimic 272, 296 neurotransmitters 229, 250 nicotine replacement therapy 59, 81-2 nitrates 70 nitrovasodilators 144, 163 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) 19, 41, 76, 79-80, 255, 318, 333 anaphylactic shock 276, 299 arthritis 269, 294 available strengths 71 contraindication 102, 123 drug interactions 109, 118-19, 131, 317, 333 gout treatment 108, 130, 210 modified-release tablets 112 phenylacetic acid derivatives 332 premenstrual tension 212 propionic acid derivatives 258, 262, 287 prostaglandin release inhibition 298 renal impairment 77 side-effects 43, 258 use in asthma 73, 275, 298 noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitors 77 oestrogen receptor antagonists 38, 59, 81 administration 322, 339 oestrogens 38, 50, 72, 281, 320, 336 see also combined oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy opioid(s) 53, 75 antitussive 249 constipation side-effects 248 dependence 134, 151 see also analgesics, antitussives opioid agonists 97, 118 partial 53 opioid analgesics dependence 124 drug interactions 296 myocardial infarction 237, 258 see also analgesics opioid analogues 319, 334 oral contraceptives see also combined oral contraceptives oral hypoglycaemic agents 85, 202 see also antidiabetic drugs oral rehydration salts 183, 206, 275, 297 molar mass 307, 326 storage 321, 338 oral rinse 12, 33 overdose, paracetamol 270, 294, 315, 331 oxidative degradation 314, 330 pancreatic lipase inhibitor 42, 84 past medical history (PMH) 185, 208 patient information 237, 257 leaflets 189, 210-11 percutaneous transluminal coronary intervention 163 peripheral dopadecarboxylase inhibitors 300 phenothiazines 62, 83, 84, 122, 205, 220, 244, 300, 314, 330 side-effects 339-40 see also antipsychotic drugs phenylacetic acid derivatives 317, 332 photosensitivity 99, 120 pituitary gland function monitoring 38 plaque formation inhibition 186, 208, 276, 299-300 removal 193, 214 plasma substitutes 162 platelet count 163 polymers 314, 330 polymorphisms 313, 330 potassium loss 64, 86 plasma levels 123 serum levels 307, 326 prescriptions, legal requirements 233, 253 process validation 275, 298 progesterone analogues 16, 38 progestogen(s) 212 derivatives 265, 290 progestogen analogues 166 progestogen-only contraceptives 113, 233, 253-4 progestogen derivatives 290 propionic acid derivatives 258, 262, 287 prostaglandin analogues 62, 71, 85, 128 prostaglandin release inhibition 275, 298 protein binding 314, 330 protein kinase inhibitors 128 Proteus 110, 131 prothrombin time 145, 163 proton christy com hydrocodone online site pump inhibitors 44, 71, 72 actions 119 side-effects 36, 80 swallowing 106, 128 Pseudomonas aeruginosa 92, 110, 113, 131, 251 quaternary ammonium compounds 128-9 quinolones 109, 131, 159 see also antibacterials recommended International Nonproprietary Name (rINN) 189, 211 refrigerators storage of drugs 97, 118 temperature 89, 111 renal function tests, methotrexate 65, 87 renin-angiotensin system 5, 29 reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors (RIMA) type A 253, 292 see also monoamine oxidase inhibitors Rickettsia 253 rubefacients 190, 212 salicylate poisoning 237, 258 saline solution infusion rate 182, 205, 306, 325 preparation 176, 201 Salmonella typhi 60, 82 scalp applications 190, 213 sedation, benzodiazepines 144, 163 selective nicotine receptor partial agonist 164 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) 77, 9 buy tramadol online 103, 120, 126, 189, 211, 292 obsessive-compulsive disorder treatment 157 side-effects 290 sensitisation 182, 205 serotonin agonists 120, 181, 201, 205 serotonin and adrenaline re-uptake inhibitors 292 serotonin antagonists 53, 75 Shigella 204 side-effects 10, 14, 17, 24, 32-3, 36, 39, 43, 52, 55, 73-4, 77, 104, 126, 148, 170, 183, 207, 227, 232, 249, 252, 263, 289, 323, 340 skeletal muscle relaxants 184, 207 smoking 214 smoking cessation 59, 81-2, 164 blood pressure lowering 220, 243 sodium intake, blood pressure lowering 243 somatomedins 139, 157 sputum viscosity reduction 183, 206 Staphylococcus aureus 92, 113 statins 12, 34, 61, 83, 99, 120 drug interactions 296 effectiveness 289 modified-release 153 side-effects 176, 201 steroids, fluorinated 316, 331 see also corticosteroids sterols, oxidative degradation 314, 330 Streptococcus pyogenes 92, 113 sulphonylureas 60, 69, 82 actions 304 long-acting 177, 202-3 potentiation 62, 84 pregnancy use 135, 152-3 short-acting 177, 203 Summaries of Product Characteristics (SPCs) 133, 151 sun protection factors 99, 120, 237, 248, 257, 267, 292 sunlight avoidance 99, 120, 248 sunscreen preparations 237, 257, 267, 292 support bandages 193, 214 suppositories 111, 193-5, 215 sympathomimetics 188, 209, 275, 297 systemic 125 topical 125, 288 see also nasal decongestants Taenia solium 179, 204 taxanes 272, 296 side-effects 80 teeth brown staining 186, 208 plaque formation inhibition 186, 208, 276, 299-300 plaque removal 193, 214 temporal arteries 147, 169 teratogens 135, 153 vitamin A 177, 202 terpenoids 161 tertiary amine parasympathomimetic agents 319, 335 therapeutic index 103, 126 thermometers, digital 106, 129 thiazolidinediones 164, 329 see also antidiabetic drugs thioxanthenes 272, 295 see also antipsychotic drugs thyroid function tests 12, 34 thyroid hormones 321-2, 338-9 toothbrushes 193, 214 tricyclic antidepressants 64, 85-6, 167, 189, 203, 211, 292 alcohol interactions 273, 296 labelling 283, 303 migraine prophylaxis 299 side-effects 303-4 SSRI advantages 103, 126, 189, 211 urinary retention 167 Tropheryma whippelii 162 tryptophan 229, 250 tyrosine 229, 250 ultraviolet rays 237, 257 unlicensed use of medicines 133, 151 uric acid deposits 108 urinalysis 324, 341 glucose monitoring 62, 85, 324, 341 uterus, contraction 221, 244 vaccines anaphylactic shock 276, 299 BCG 56, 78 children 268, 293 diphtheria 268, 293 hepatitis A 10, 32 hepatitis B 10, 32, 83, 319, 335 human papilloma virus 7, 30-1 measles 268, 293 mumps 268, 293 pertussis 56, 78 pneumococcal 105, 127 polio 56, 78 rubella 268, 293 storage 118 vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition 165 vinca alkaloids 113 vitamin D derivatives 57, 79 weights 262, 287 wound healing 160 Yellow Card Scheme (MHRA) 151 Yersinia pestis 179, 204 yew tree bark 272, 296 Published April 2010 by MistraPharma Editors: Christina Ruden, Karin Liljelund and Helene Hagerman (c) The authors Distributed by MistraPharma ISBN 978-91-978836-0-3 This book can be ordered info@mistrapharma.se Printed by: Elanders Sverige AB, Stockholm Sweden.



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