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There are primarily two sources to new environmental data on pharmaceuticals; the pharmaceutical industry and the independent research community. Pharmaceuticals were relatively recently recognised as environmental pollutants (Kummerer, 2008). This is reflected in the fact that regulatory test requirements were just recently introduced.
The number of scientific publications on environmental effects of pharmaceuticals is rising at a steady pace, but still hydrocodone no consultation the knowledge is strikingly limited.
In general lack of data will result in higher generic oxycontin 10mg tablets assessment factors being used in the generic oxycontin 10mg tablets risk assessment. According to the TGD, an evaluation of the data reliability should ensure "the inherent quality of a test relating to test methodology and the way that the performance and results of the test are described" (European Commission, 2003). Basically this evaluation should answer the question: Has the experiment generated and reported a true and correct result? The assessment of the relevance of the data should describe "the extent to which a test is appropriate for xanax time release a particular hazard or risk assessment" (European Commission, 2003), e.g. answer questions like these: Is the measured endpoint a valid indicator of environmental risk? Is the experimental model sufficiently sensitive in relation to detecting the expected effects? Has the experimental model a sufficient statistical power? How representative is the experimental model to the environment that it is aimed to protect? Evaluation of data can be done within different frameworks. In some cases it is necessary to rely solely on a case-by-case approach based on expert judgement, while in other cases a more criteria based approach can be used (European Commission, 2003). Examples of proposed generic oxycontin 10mg tablets systems for applying pre-set evaluation criteria can e.g.
A major advantage of a more criteria based approach is that a collection of pre-set evaluation criteria may contribute to an increased predictability of the data evaluation process since it becomes less dependent on the case- by-case judgments of individual experts. Pre-defined criteria will at least contribute to ensure that a minimum and similar set of aspects are considered in each evaluation. They may also contribute to increased transparency of the evaluation process to the extent that these criteria are communicated to the relevant actors. Disadvantages of using pre-defined evaluation generic oxycontin 10mg tablets criteria are that they are obviously less flexible and that they in many cases will have to focus on the more general aspects of a test. Therefore they still might have to be adapted case-by-case. Hence there is a need to strike a balance between the use of expert judgement and the reliance on pre-defined criteria. Or, put in another way, between flexibility and predictability in the data quality evaluation process.
Data evaluation will always include an element of expert judgment, but it is also, in our view, important to continuously seek to increase predictability and transparency in this process. The way forward for environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals As we see it, there are (at least) three potential ways forward to ensure that relevant and sufficiently sensitive tests are used in the regulatory environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals in the future: 1.cheap phentermine buy diet pills To develop new standard tests, or 2.to adjust existing standard tests i.e. supplementing them with additional endpoints, or 3.to increase the use of non-standard tests As described above standardisation is a costly and buying consultation doctor hydrocodone online time-consuming process and since pharmaceuticals are a diverse group when it comes to how it affects biological life it is unlikely that new standards, covering all relevant endpoints, will be developed in the near future.
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