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We believe that this search strategy resulted in a reasonably good coverage of the publicly accessible ecotoxicity data. Currently the contents of the database is limited to the APIs for which an environmental risk assessment is required according to European law, hence information on vitamins, minerals, vaccines, etc.
The reason for these exceptions is that these APIs are generally considered to be of low environmental risk (EMA, 2006).
Since the MistraPharma research programme does not cover the terrestrial compartment, the main focus is on effect data relevant to the aquatic environment. For each ecotoxicity test included in buying phentermine without a prescription the database, information about the test species (identity, sex, age or life stage, and number), type of buying phentermine without a prescription method, test concentrations, exposure time, and reported effects and effect concentrations were extracted from the literature.
The concentration that gives rise to adverse effects in ecotoxicity tests, such as mortality, immobility, growth or reproductive inhibition, can be reported xanax patient assistance program in different ways. Typically it is expressed as the median lethal concentration (LC50), or the median effect concentration (EC50), the No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC), or the Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC). Only tests where an effect concentration (or a no-effect concentration) was presented, or for which such an effect measure could be derived or calculated, buying phentermine without a prescription were included in the database. An overview of the WikiPharma contents In total WikiPharma currently contains effect data for 130 pharmaceutical substances, representing 36 different pharmaceutical groups.
These ecotoxicity test data have been extracted from 172 different sources. Standardized and acute tests are in majority As mentioned above, WikiPharma includes information about e.g. which types of test has been used, test species and endpoints investigated. Analyzing the contents of WikiPharma shows that approximately 52% of the effect data in the database originates from tests conducted according to standard methods. The most frequently occurring test standards are and hydrocodone those issued by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the U.S.
Environmental hydrocodone bitartrate vs hydrocodone Protection Agency, and the International Standards Organization (ISO). (Modified versions of the standard test guidelines were included in this counting). Tests performed using commercial standard kits like the Microtox test, Thamnotoxkit, Rotoxkit, Spirotox, Streptoxkit and Artoxkit are also commonly occurring in the database. An estimation of the number of short-term and long-term ecotoxicity tests gathered in the database was obtained by grouping different species together according to their generation time. Tests with exposure times up to 48 hours for crustaceans and up to 96 hours for fish and amphibians were buying phentermine without a prescription identified as short-term tests in accordance with Cooney (2003).
For algal buying phentermine without a prescription tests, exposure to the test substance for 3 days was counted as a short-term test when an EC50 or LC50 value was reported, but as a long-term test when a NOEC or LOEC value was reported. This was made in accordance with the European Commission's Technical Guidance Document on Risk Assessment (European Commission, 2003). Tests with microorganisms were counted as short-term if exposure did not exceed 20 hours. Based on the division of species into the following groups: microorganisms (mainly bacteria), algae and vascular plants, invertebrates and vertebrates (fish and amphibians) it was concluded that data generated from short-term tests constitute 52% of the WikiPharma data set. An explanation for the large amount of short-term toxicity tests may be that long-term environmental testing was not required by law before 2006 (EMA, 2006).
Most common species There are 90 different species represented in the database.
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