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The existing standard test guidelines can be divided into acute and chronic tests. In acute tests, organisms are exposed to high chemical concentrations during a short period in relation to the lifespan of the selected organism and the endpoints measured are life ending, such as mortality description prescription tramadol and inhibition of growth. The exposure time for acute buy phentermine without prescription tests for microorganisms is usually 21 days, and for vertebrates > 2 weeks. Microorganisms and algae are normally not tested for chronic toxicity, but in a regulatory context a no effect value from an acute test on algae can be used as a chronic value if chronic values from other trophic levels are available.

Standard and non-standard tests Ecotoxicological testing can be done using a variety of methods and models. Two very general alternatives are to use a standard test or a non-standard test. Standard tests refer to tests performed and reported according to a method described and provided by an official standardisation organisation (see below). The test standard establishes a uniform specification of the experimental set-up and execution, methods for data analyses, and the reporting format for the test buy phentermine without prescription data. By non-standard tests we refer to tests performed according to any other most effective appetite suppresant phentermine 37.5 test method that meets a set of general scientific quality criteria such as having: a defined purpose of the study, a clear description of the endpoints, inclusion of appropriate controls, appropriate identification of test substance and test organism, appropriate concentrations tested, stated exposure duration time and administration route, suitable exposure environment, and transparent reporting of effect concentrations.

The major advantages of using a standard test are that the results are directly comparable across substances and that the data they generate will be readily accepted across jurisdictions. The major disadvantage is that the standard methods do not always represent the most relevant testing approach given the type of endpoint under investigation. Therefore, buy phentermine without prescription results from non-standardised tests may contribute additional and significant information to a risk assessment. According to the European TGD for risk assessment, buy hydrocodone without a prescription non-standardised methods should buy phentermine without prescription be taken into account case-by-case based on expert judgment (European Commission, 2003, part 1, p.

In contrast to this, the EMA guideline on environmental risk assessment proposes that standard data should be used for risk assessment of pharmaceuticals, non-standard data is not mentioned (EMA, 2006). The main advantage with data generated and reported in accordance with detailed test standards is that it contributes to promote the reliability of the data by making it easier to repeat the experiment if needed because of the detailed test procedures and extensive reporting of data that is required. Given the characteristics and purposes of standard tests it is not surprising that standard testing is mostly performed by commercial laboratories while non-standardised methods are typically used by research scientists. In this context, it is important to note that non-standard experiments can be just as reliable (and reproducible) as tests performed under strict implementation buy phentermine without prescription of test standards, and that following test guidelines will not automatically ensure that the test has sufficient relevance for risk assessment purposes. Standardisation procedures As outlined above, there are important advantages of using standard tests in the regulatory system, but for some types of expected effects such standard methods are currently lacking. An important aspect is thus how new, or updated standard tests can be developed and become accepted in the regulatory system. In this section the standardisation process is introduced. Standardisation is the process of developing and agreeing upon a standard. This process is similar within the different standardisation organisations.

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