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One of the pharmaceuticals, levonorgestrel, was detected in fish plasma at levels that exceeded the human therapeutic plasma concentration2. Levonorgestrel is a synthetic progestin used in different types of contraceptives.

Other researchers recently showed that exposure to as little as 0.8 nanogram (10-9 gram) levonorgestrel per litre water significantly reduced the fertility of fish3.

showed that an effluent concentration of 1 nanogram per litre water resulted in a plasma concentration in exposed fish that was higher than the human therapeutic plasma concentration. This significant finding will certainly be further investigated within MistraPharma.

One type of investigation that will be applied to the substances identified as potential environmental risks is biological testing.

In chapter 2 (The frog test system, by Cecilia Berg) the frog test model is introduced. In the frog test system larvae are exposed to the test substances from hatching until completed metamorphosis. Effects are evaluated at certain larval stages, at metamorphosis and when the frogs have reached sexual maturity. Major endpoints are expression of genes important for sex differentiation and development, aromatase activity (aromatase catalyses the conversion of androgens into estrogens), and the activity of specific neurotransmitters in the brain. The testicles, ovaries, oviducts, thyroid gland and other suspected target organs are evaluated for structural changes using microscopy. Fertility studies include endpoints such as sexual behaviour, egg production, hatchability, embryo mortality, and sperm quality. Results obtained within MistraPharma show that frogs are more sensitive to estrogenic environmental pollutants than what was previously known. Larval exposure to the estrogenic pharmaceutical ethynylestradiol (EE2) at concentrations is tramadol hcl 50mg found in the environment caused permanent male-to-female sex-reversal and reduced fertility. This demonstrates that also for amphibians the differentiation of the gonads is sensitive to disturbance by estrogenic environmental pollutants. Overall it buy hydrocodone january period summary is concluded that the frog is a promising model for research on developmental reproductive toxicity. In chapter 3 (Genomics as a guide for environmental risk assessments of pharmaceuticals, by Filip Cuklev, Lina Gunnarsson, and Joakim Larsson) genomics is introduced as a method for risk identification and risk assessment. Genomics includes studies of the genome on a is tramadol hcl 50mg large scale. The genome is the sum of new tramadol 120 cod an organism's genetic information, encoded in the DNA molecule. The DNA contains the genes, and the genes will generate proteins via mRNA.

Proteins determine the structure and function of the cells, and as a result, everything that occurs in an organism is related to an effect of a protein.

Thereby the study of is tramadol hcl 50mg mRNA can reveal effects at the protein level and thus effects on physiological processes. Many pharmaceuticals are designed to induce a specific pharmacological response through interactions with target proteins, e.g. receptors, while affecting other physiological processes dm hydrocodone promethazine syrup as little as possible. Many of the proteins in wild organisms are similar to the proteins in humans.

This means that a human pharmaceutical may interact with a similar protein in other species and is tramadol hcl 50mg thereby affect the non-target organism.

Consequently, the presence of human drug target proteins in a wildlife species increases the likelihood that this species will be affected by human pharmaceuticals present in the environment. Analyses of gene sequences indicate that fishes and frogs have a corresponding target protein for 80% of the investigated human drug targets, while for certain other organisms many human drug targets are lacking.



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